JWARP  Vol.8 No.7 , June 2016
Analysis of Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationship for Rwanda
Abstract: Global atmospheric and oceanic perturbations and local weather variability induced factors highly alter the rainfall pattern of a region. Such factors result in extreme events of devastating nature to mankind. Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) is one of the most commonly used tools in water resources engineering particularly to identify design storm event of various magnitude, duration and return period simultaneously. In light of this, the present study is aimed at developing rainfall IDF relationship for entire Rwanda based on selected twenty six (26) rainfall gauging stations. The gauging stations have been selected based on reliable rainfall records representing the different geographical locations varying from 14 to 83 years of record length. Daily annual maximum rainfall data has been disaggregated into sub-daily values such as 0.5 hr, 1 hr, 3 hr, 6 hr and 12 hr and fitted to the probability distributions. Quantile estimation has been made for different return periods and best fit distribution is identified based on least square standard error of estimate. At-site and regional IDF parameters were computed and subsequent curves were established for different return period. The moment ratio diagram (MRD) and L-moment ratio diagram (LMRD) methods have been used to fit frequency distributions and identify homogeneous regions for observed 24-hr maximum annual rainfall. The rainfall stations have been divided into five homogeneous rainfall regions for all 26 stations. The results of present analysis can be used as useful information for future water resources development planning purposes.
Cite this paper: Wagesho, N. and Claire, M. (2016) Analysis of Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationship for Rwanda. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 706-723. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.87058.

[1]   Mohymont, B.G. (2004) Establishment of IDF-Curves for Precipitation in the Tropical Area of Central Africa. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 4, 375-387.

[2]   Lam, K. (2004) Update of the Short Duration Rainfall IDF Curves for Recent Climate in Quebec. Canadian water Res. Assoc. Ann. cong.

[3]   Koutsoyiannis, D.K. (1998) A Mathematical Framework for Studying Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationships. Journal of Hydrology, 206, 118-135.

[4]   Koutsoyiannis, D. (2003) On the Appropriateness of the Gumbel Distribution for Modelling Extreme Rainfall. Proceedings of the ESF LESC Exploratory Workshop, Hydrological Risk: Recent Advances in Peak River Flow Modelling, Prediction and Real-Time Forecasting, Assessment of the Impacts of Land-Use and Climate Changes, European Science Foundation, National Research Council of Italy, University of Bologna, Bologna.

[5]   Nhat, L., Tachikawa, Y. and Takara, K. (2006) Derivation of Rainfall Duration Frequency Relationship for Short Duration Rainfall from Daily Rainfall. Proc. of Int.l Symp. on Managing Water Supplyfor Growing Demand, Technical Document in Hydrology, 6, 89-96.

[6]   Prodanovic, P. and Simonovic, S.P. (2007) Development of Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency Curves for the City of London Under the Changing Climate. Water Resources Research Report No. 058, Facility for Intelligent Decision Support, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, London, Ontario, Canada, 51 p.

[7]   Khalid, K. and Elsebaie, I. (2013) Development of Intensity Duration Frequency Relationship for Abha City in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Computer Engineering Research, 3, 58-65.

[8]   Bernard, M. (1932) Formulas for Rainfall Intensities of Long Duration. Trans.ASCE, 96, 592-624.

[9]   Chow, V., Maidment, D. and Mays, L. (1988) Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

[10]   De Paola, F., Giugni, M., Topa, M.E. and Bucchignani, E. (2014) Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Rainfall Curves, for Data Series and Climate Projection in Africa Cities. Springer Plus, 3, 133.

[11]   Ben-Zvi, A. (2009) Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationships Derived from Large Partial Duration Series. Journal of Hydrology, 367, 104-114.

[12]   Bougadis, J. and Adamowski, K. (2006) Scaling Model of Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationship. Hydrological Processes, 20, 3747-3757.

[13]   Cheng, L. and Agha Kouchak, A. (2014) Nonstationary Precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Infrastructure Design in a Changing Climate. Scientific Reports, 4, 7093, 1-6.

[14]   Climate Report, Rwanda (2009) DFID Economic Impacts of Climate Change: Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, ICPAC, Kenya and SEI Oxford Office.

[15]   REMA, Ruwanda Environmental Managemnent Authority (2006) Rwanda State of Environment and Outlook. Kigali.

[16]   Wenzel Jr., H.G. (1982) Rainfall for Urban Stormwater Design, Urban Stormwater Hydrology, Water Resour. Monogr., 7D. F. Kibler, AGU, Washington DC.

[17]   Dalrymple, T. (1960) Flood Frequency Analysis. US Geological Survey. Water Supply Paper, 1543 A.

[18]   Grover, P.L., Burn, D.H. and Cunderlik, J.M.A. (2002) Comparison of Index Flood Estimation Procedures for Ungauged Catchments. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 29, 734-741.

[19]   Hosking, J.R.M. (1990) L-Moments: Analysis and Estimation of Distributions Using Linear Combinations of Order Statistics. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 52, 105-124.

[20]   Atiem, A. and Harmancioglu, N.B. (2006) Assessment of Regional Floods Using L-Moments Approach: The Case of the River Nile. Water Resources Management, 20, 723-747.

[21]   Gonzalez, J. and Valids, J.B. (2008) A Regional Monthly Precipitation Simulation Model Based on an L-Moment Smoothed Statistical Regionalization Approach. Journal of Hydrology, 348, 27-39.

[22]   Saif, B. (2009) Regional Flood Frequency Analysis Using L-Moments for the West Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Water Resources Management, 23, 531-551.

[23]   Burn, D.H. (1988) Delineation of Groups for Regional Flood Frequency Analysis. Journal of Hydrology, 104, 345-361.

[24]   Cavadias, G.S. (1989) Regional flood Estimation by Canonical Correlation. Paper Presented to the 1989 Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, St-John’s, Newfoundland.

[25]   Hosking, J.R.M and Wallis, J.R. (1997) Regional Frequency Analysis: An Approach Based on L-moments. Cambridge University Press, UK.