ENG  Vol.8 No.6 , June 2016
Comparison of Compressive and Tensile Strength of Baked Clay with Those of Normal Concrete
Abstract: Due to high cost of aggregates, cement and steel in plain regions of Pakistan, low income people are unable to get their houses constructed using Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC). In this study, potential of baked clay as an economical material of building construction is investigated in order to replace normal concrete. For this purpose, compressive strength and tensile strength of baked clay fired at 1000 were determined. The results show that the compressive strength and tensile strength of baked clay are about 65%, and 80% more than those of corresponding values of normal concrete, respectively. This implies that by utilizing reinforced baked clay instead of RCC, saving of cement aggregates and reinforcing steel could be achieved.
Cite this paper: Lakho, N. and Zardari, M. (2016) Comparison of Compressive and Tensile Strength of Baked Clay with Those of Normal Concrete. Engineering, 8, 301-307. doi: 10.4236/eng.2016.86027.

[1]   Ansari, A.A., Bhatti, N.K. and Bhutto, A. (2013) Suitability of Pre-Perforated Post-Reinforced Baked Clay Beam Panels for Low Cost Housing. American Journal of Civil Engineering, 1, 6-15.

[2]   Ansari, A.A. and Lakho, N.A. (2013) Determination of Structural Properties of Baked Clay as Replacement of RCC. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 3, 17-25.

[3]   Ansari, A.A. (2008) Experimental Study of the Behaviour of Pre-Perforated Post-Reinforced Baked Clay Panels of Beams. PhD Thesis, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering Science and Technology, Nawabshah.

[4]   Wertime, T.A. (1973) Pyrotechnology: Man’s First Industrial Uses of Fire: The Neolithic Revolution Introduced Man to the New Energy Resources to Be Had from Agriculture and Those to Be Gained by Applying Fire to Fuels and Earths. American Scientist, 61, 670-682.

[5]   Hodges, H. (1992) Technology in the Ancient World. Barnes and Noble Publishing, New York.

[6]   Nemet-Nejat, K.R. (1998) Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Greenwood Publishing Group, London.

[7]   Bertman, S. (2005) Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[8]   Contreras, F.U. (2006) Adobe Conservation: A Preservation Handbook. Sunstone Press, Santa Fe.

[9]   Fraser, V. (1986) Architecture and Imperialism in Sixteenth Century Spanish America. Art History, 9, 325-335.

[10]   Gelernter, M. (2001) A History of American Architecture: Buildings in Their Cultural and Technological Context. Manchester University Press, Manchester.

[11]   Farooq, A.A. (1986) Excavations at Mansurah (13th Season). Pakistan Archaeology, 10, 3-35.

[12]   Merritt, F.S. (2012) Building Engineering and Systems Design. Springer Science and Business Media, Berlin.

[13]   Nilson, A.H., Darwin, D. and Dolan, C.W. (2011) Design of Concrete Structures. McGraw-Hill, New York.

[14]   McCormac, J.C. and Brown, R.H. (2015) Design of Reinforced Concrete. Wiley, Hoboken.

[15]   Wight, J.K. and MacGregor, J.G. (2015) Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design. Pearson Education, New Jersey.

[16]   Karaman, S., Ersahin, S. and Gunal, H. (2006) Firing Temperature and Firing Time Influence on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Clay Bricks. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 65, 153-159.

[17]   Johari, I., Said, S., Hisham, B., Bakar, A. and Ahmad, Z.A. (2010) Effect of the Change of Firing Temperature on Microstructure and Physical Properties of Clay Bricks from Beruas (Malaysia). Science of Sintering, 42, 245-254.

[18]   Prasertsan, S. and Theppaya, T. (1995) A Study toward Energy Saving in Brick Making: Part 1—Key Parameters for Energy Saving. International Energy Journal, 17, 145-156.

[19]   Karaman, S., Gunal, H. and Ersahin, S. (2006) Assessment of Clay Bricks Compressive Strength Using Quantitative Values of Colour Components. Construction and Building Materials, 20, 348-354.

[20]   Karaman, S., Gunal, H. and Gokalp, Z. (2012) Variation of Clay Brick Colors and Mechanical Strength as Affected by Different Firing Temperatures. Scientific Research and Essays, 7, 4208-4212.

[21]   British Standard BS 810-2 (1985) Structural Use of Concrete, Part 2: Code of Practice for Special Circumstances.

[22]   Latha, P.K., Darshana, Y. and Venugopal, V. (2015) Role of Building Material in Thermal Comfort in Tropical Climates—A Review. Journal of Building Engineering, 3, 104-113.

[23]   Touolak, B.T., Nya, F.T., Haulin, E.N., Yanne, E. and Ndjaka, J.M. (2015) Compressed Bricks Made of Makabaye and Pitoaré Clay: Implementation and Production. Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, 5, 191-204.

[24]   ASTM D3282-15 (2015) Standard Practice for Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes. ASTM International, West Conshohocken.

[25]   Lakho, N.A., Zardari, M.A., Memon, M. and Saand, A. (2015) Design and Fabrication of Mechanized System for Casting and Compacting Laboratory Size Clay Beams. Scientia Iranica, 22, 2046-2051.

[26]   BS EN 12390-3 (2002) Testing Hardened Concrete—Part 3: Compressive Strength of Test Specimens.

[27]   ASTM C42/C42M-13 (2013) Standard Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken.

[28]   ASTM C293/C293M-10 (2010) Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Center-Point Loading). ASTM International, West Conshohocken.

[29]   ACI 318-11 (2011) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-11). American Concrete Institute, 38800 Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI 48331, USA.