Back
 IJAA  Vol.6 No.2 , June 2016
Properties of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Revisited
Abstract: There is growing evidence to suggest that the black hole mass has been previously underestimated with the Hb line width for certain Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). With the assumption of the flatter rather than isotropic velocity distribution of gases in the broad-line region of AGN, we investigated the properties of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, like the black hole mass and the Eddington ratio, and compared with Broad Line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies. Since gamma-rays detected in a few NLS1s which favored a smaller viewing angle in NLS1s than BLS1s, with the projection effect, we estimated the relative black hole mass and Eddington ratio for NLS1s and BLS1s. The result implies that the NLS1s and BLS1s have similar black hole masses and Eddington ratios, peaked at a larger black hole mass and lower Eddington ratio for the NLS1s than thought before. Furthermore, with applying the correction factor 6 of average black hole mass as derived from the modeling of both optical and UV data in radio-loud NLS1s by Calderone et al., to the Xu et al. sample, we find that the NLS1s and BLS1s also show similar black hole masses and Eddington ratios, peaked at 2.0 × 107 solar masses and 0.12 (Eddington ratio) for the NLS1s. The   relation due to the enhanced black hole masses of NLS1s is discussed. In addition, there seems to show a linear correlation between jet power and disk luminosity for the flat spectrum radio-loud NLS1 sample, which implies an accretion dominated rather than black hole spin dominated jet.
Cite this paper: Liu, X. , Yang, P. , Supriyanto, R. and Zhang, Z. (2016) Properties of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Revisited. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 6, 166-174. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2016.62014.
References

[1]   Osterbrock, D.E. and Pogge, R. (1985) The Spectra of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal, 297, 166-176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/163513

[2]   Goodrich, R.W. (1989) Spectropolarimetry of “Narrow-Line” Seyfert 1 Galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal, 342, 224-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/167586

[3]   Khachikian, E.Y. and Weedman, D.W. (1974) An Atlas of Seyfert Galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal, 192, 581-589.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/153093

[4]   Yuan, W., Zhou, H.Y., Komossa, S., Dong, X.B., Wang, T.G., Lu, H.L. and Bai, J.M. (2008) A Population of Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies with Blazar-Like Properties? The Astrophysical Journal, 685, 801-827.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/591046

[5]   Decarli, R., Dotti, M., Fontana, M. and Haardt, F. (2008) Are the Black Hole Masses in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Actually Small? Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 386, L15-L19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3933.2008.00451.x

[6]   Stern, B.E. and Poutanen, J. (2014) The Mystery of Spectral Breaks: Lyman Continuum Absorption by Photon-Photon Pair Production in the Fermi GeV Spectra of Bright Blazars. ApJ, 794, id.8.

[7]   Calderone, G., Ghisellini, G., Colpi, M. and Dotti, M. (2013) Black Hole Mass Estimate for a Sample of Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 431, 210-239.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stt157

[8]   Baldi, R.D., Capetti, A., Robinson, A., Laor, A. and Behar, E. (2016) Radio-Loud Narrow Line Seyfert 1 under a Different Perspective: A Revised Black Hole Mass Estimate From Optical Spectropolarimetry. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 458, L69-L73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnrasl/slw019

[9]   Komossa, S., Voges, W., Xu, D., Mathur, S., Adorf, H.-M., et al. (2006) Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Type 1 Quasars. The Astronomical Journal, 132, 531-545.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/505043

[10]   Zhou, H., Wang, T., Yuan, W., Lu, H., Dong, X., et al. (2006) A Comprehensive Study of 2000 Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. The Sample. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 166, 128-153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/504869

[11]   Xu, D., Komossa, S., Zhou, H., Lu, H., Li, C., et al. (2012) Correlation Analysis of a Large Sample of Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies: Linking Central Engine and Host Properties. The Astronomical Journal, 143, Article ID: 83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/143/4/83

[12]   Ackermann, M., et al. (2015) The Third Catalog of Active Galactic Nuclei Detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The Astrophysical Journal, 810, Article ID: 14.

[13]   Foschini, L., Berton, M., Caccianiga, A., Ciroi, S., Cracco, V., et al. (2015) Properties of Flat-Spectrum Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 575, Article ID: A13.

[14]   Tavecchio, F. and Ghisellini, G. (2012) “Flat” Broad Line Region and Gamma-Ray Absorption in Blazars.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1209.2291

[15]   Lei, M.C. and Wang, J.C. (2014) The Effect of the Broad-Line Region with Geometrical Structures on Gamma-Ray Absorption in Blazars. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 66, Article ID:7.

[16]   Orr, M.J.L. and Browne, I.W.A. (1982) Relativistic Beaming and Quasar Statistics. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 200, 1067-1080.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/200.4.1067

[17]   Boroson, T.A. and Green, R.F. (1992) The Emission-Line Properties of Low-Redshift Quasi-Stellar Objects. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 80, 109-135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/191661

[18]   Bentz, M.C., Walsh, J.L., Barth, A.J., Baliber, N., Bennert, V.N., et al. (2009) The Lick AGN Monitoring Project: Broad-Line Region Radii and Black Hole Masses from Reverberation Mapping of Hβ. The Astrophysical Journal, 705, 199-217.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/705/1/199

[19]   Bian, W. and Zhao, Y. (2004) Black Hole Masses in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 352, 823-827.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07967.x

[20]   Nikolajuk, M., Czerny, B. and Gurynowicz, P. (2009) NLS1 Galaxies and Estimation of Their Central Black Hole Masses from the X-Ray Excess Variance Method. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 394, 2141-2152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14478.x

[21]   Punsly, B. and Zhang, S.H. (2010) Hβ Line Widths as an Orientation Indicator for Low-Ionization Broad Absorption Line Quasars. The Astrophysical Journal, 725, 1928-1937.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/725/2/1928

[22]   Wang, J.-M., Qiu, J., Du, P. and Ho, L.C. (2014) Self-Shadowing Effects of Slim Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei: The Diverse Appearance of the Broad-Line Region. The Astrophysical Journal, 797, Article ID: 65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637x/797/1/65

[23]   Osterbrock, D.E. and Mathews, W.G. (1986) Emission-Line Regions of Active Galaxies and QSOs. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 24, 171-203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.aa.24.090186.001131

[24]   Xu, D., Komossa, S., Zhou, H., Wang, T. and Wei, J. (2007) The Narrow-Line Region of Narrow-Line and Broad-Line Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei. I. A Zone of Avoidance in Density. The Astrophysical Journal, 670, 60-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/521697

[25]   Paliya, V.S., Stalin, C.S. and Ravikumar, C.D. (2015) Fermi Monitoring of Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. The Astronomical Journal, 149, Article ID: 41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/149/2/41

[26]   Liao, N.H., Liang, Y.F., Weng, S.S., Gu, M.-F. and Fan, Y.-Z. (2015) Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from a Steep Radio Spectrum NLS1 B3 1441 + 476.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.05584

[27]   Zhou, H., Wang, T., Dong, X., Zhou, Y. and Li, C. (2003) SDSS J094857.3+002225: A Very Radio Loud, Narrow-Line Quasar with Relativistic Jets? The Astrophysical Journal, 584, 147-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/345523

[28]   Angelakis, E., Fuhrmann, L., Marchili, N., Foschini, L., Myserlis, I., et al. (2015) Radio Jet Emission From GeV-Emitting Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 575, Article Number: A55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201425081

[29]   Doi, A., Nagira, H., Kawakatu, N., Kino, M., Nagai, H. and Asada, K. (2012) Kiloparsec-Scale Radio Structures in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal, 760, Article ID: 41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637x/760/1/41

[30]   Gu, M.F., Chen, Y.J., Komossa, S., Yuan, W., Shen, Z., Wajima, K., et al. (2015) The Radio Properties of Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies on Parsec Scales. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 221, Article ID: 3.

[31]   Zhou, X.L. and Zhang, S.N. (2010) A Comparison of Hard X-Ray Photon Indices and Iron Kα Emission Lines in X-Ray Luminous Narrow-and Broad-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal, 713, L11-L15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/713/1/l11

[32]   Liu, Z., Yuan, W.M., Lu, Y.J. and Zhou, X.L. (2015) Relativistic Fe Kα Line Revealed in the Composite X-Ray Spectrum of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies—Do Their Black Holes Have Averagely Low or Intermediate Spins? Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 447, 517-529.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stu2423

[33]   Liu, X. and Han, Z.H. (2014) Is Radio Jet Power Linearly Proportional to the Product of Central Black Hole Mass and Eddington Ratio in AGN? Astrophysics and Space Science, 354, 553-560.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10509-014-2102-9

[34]   Liu, X., Han, Z.H. and Zhang, Z. (2016) The Physical Fundamental Plane of Black Hole Activity: Revisited. Astrophysics and Space Science, 361, Article ID: 9.

[35]   van Velzen, S. and Falcke, H. (2013) The Contribution of Spin to Jet-Disk Coupling in Black Holes. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 557, Article ID: L7.

[36]   Ghisellini, G., Tavecchio, F., Maraschi, L., Celotti, A. and Sbarrato, T. (2014) The Power of Relativistic Jets Is Larger than the Luminosity of Their Accretion Disks. Nature, 515, 376-378.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13856

[37]   Done, C., Jin, C., Middleton, M. and Ward, M. (2013) A New Way to Measure Supermassive Black Hole Spin in Accretion Disc-Dominated Active Galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 434, 1955-1963.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stt1138

[38]   Shen, Y. and Ho, L.C. (2014) The Diversity of Quasars Unified by Accretion and Orientation. Nature, 513, 210-213.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13712

[39]   Brotherton, M.S., Singh, V. and Runnoe, J. (2015) Orientation and Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimation. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 454, 3864-3871.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stv2186

[40]   Bian, W.-H., Hu, C., Gu, Q.S. and Wang, J.M. (2008) A Note on Black Hole Masses Estimated by the Second Moment in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 390, 752-758.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13787.x

[41]   Kormendy, J. and Ho, L.C. (2013) Coevolution (or Not) of Supermassive Black Holes and Host Galaxies. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 51, 511-653.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-astro-082708-101811

[42]   Woo, J.-H., Yoon, Y., Park, S., Park, D. and Kim, S.C. (2015) The Black Hole Mass-Stellar Velocity Dispersion Relation of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal, 801, Article ID: 38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637x/801/1/38

[43]   Shankar, F., Bernardi, M., Sheth, R.K., Ferrarese, L., Graham, A.W., et al. (2016) Selection Bias in Dynamically-Measured Super-Massive Black Holes: Its Consequences and the Quest for the Most Fundamental Relation. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, in Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw678

[44]   Mathur, S., Fields, D., Peterson, B.M. and Grupe, D. (2012) Supermassive Black Holes, Pseudobulges, and the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal, 754, Article ID: 146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637x/754/2/146

[45]   Komossa, S., Xu, D., Zhou, H., Storchi-Bergmann, T. and Binette, L. (2008) On the Nature of Seyfert Galaxies with High [O III] λ5007 Blueshifts. The Astrophysical Journal, 680, 926-938.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/587932

[46]   Wang, J., Xu, D.W. and Wei, J.Y. (2016) A Direct Linkage between AGN Outflows in the Narrow-Line Regions and the X-Ray Emission from the Accretion Disks. The Astronomical Journal, 151, Article ID: 81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/0004-6256/151/3/81

[47]   Foschini, L. (2014) The Unification of Relativistic Jets. International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series, 28, Article ID: 1460188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/s2010194514601884

 
 
Top