ABSTRACT Poly(divinylbenzene) (PDVB) microcapsules containing octadecane (OD) (PDVB/OD) used as heat storage material were synthesized by suspension polymerization at 70 Microencapsulation, Microcapsule, Heat Storage Material, Octadecane, Suspension Polymerization, Poly(Divinylbenzene)C using benzoyl peroxide and polyvinyl alcohol as initiator and stabilizer, respectively. Thermal properties and stability of PDVB/OD microcapsules were determined using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer. The morphology and structure of microcapsules were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. From DSC analysis, the melting temperature of encapsulated OD (28oC) was almost the same as that of bulk OD (30oC) while it was quite different in the case of the solidification temperature (19oC and 25oC for encapsulated and bulk OD, respectively). The latent heats of melting (184.0 J/g-OD) and solidification (183.2 J/g-OD) of encapsulated OD were reduced from those of bulk OD (241.7 and 247.0 J/g, respectively). However, the prepared PDVB/OD microcapsules are able to be used for heat storage applications.
Cite this paper
nullP. Chaiyasat, A. Chaiyasat, W. Boontung, S. Promdsorn and S. Thipsit, "Preparation and Characterization of Poly(divinylbenzene) Microcapsules Containing Octadecane," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 2 No. 8, 2011, pp. 1007-1013. doi: 10.4236/msa.2011.28136.
 M. Kenisarin and K. Mahkamov, “Solar Energy Storage Using Phase Change Materials,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 11, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1913-1965.
 P. Zhang, Z. W. Ma and R. Z. Wang, “An Overview of Phase Change Material Slurries: MPCS and CHS,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 2, February 2010, pp. 598-614.
 F. Agyenim, N. Hewitt, P. Eames and M. Smyth, “A Review of Materials, Heat Transfer and Phase Change Problem Formulation for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems (LHTESS),” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol.14, No. 2, February 2010, pp. 615-628.
 N. Zhu, Z. Ma and S. Wang, “Dynamic Characteristics and Energy Performance of Buildings Using Phase Change Materials: A Review,” Energy Convers Manage, Vol. 50, No. 12, September 2009, pp. 3169-3181.
 A. Sharma, V. V. Tyagi, C. R. Chen and D. Buddhi, “Review on Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change Materials and Applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13, No. 2, February 2009, pp. 318-345.
 S. Jegadheeswaran and S. D. Pohekar, “Performance Enhancement in Latent Heat Thermal Storage System: A Review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13, No. 9, June 2009, pp. 2225-2244.
 S. Mondal, “Phase Change Materials for Smart Textiles-An Overview,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 11-12, August 2008, pp. 1536-1550.
 V. T. Tyagi and D. Buddhi, “PCM Thermal Storage in Buildings: A State of Art,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 11, No. 6, August 2007, pp. 1146- 1166. doi.10.1016/j.rser.2005.10.002
 A. M. Khudhair and M. M. Farid, “A Review on Energy Conservation in Building Applications with Thermal Storage by Latent Heat Using Phase Change Materials,” Energy Conversion Management, Vol. 45, No. 2, May 2004, pp. 263-275. doi.10.1016/S0196-8904(03)00131-6
 G. Sun and Z. Zhang, “Mechanical Strength of Microcapsules Made of Different Wall Materials,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Vol. 242, January 2002, pp. 307-311. doi.10.1016/S0378-5173(02)00193-X
 M. M. Farid, A. M. Khudhair, S. A. K. Razack and S. Al-Hallaj, “A Review on Phase Change Energy Storage: Materials and Applications,” Energy Conversion Management, Vol. 45, No. 9-10, September 2004, pp. 1597- 1615. doi.10.1016/j.enconman.2003.09.015
 N. Sarier and E. Onder, “Thermal Characteristics of Polyurethane Foams Incorporated with Phase Change Materials,” Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 454, No. 2, March 2007, pp. 90-98. doi.10.1016/j.tca.2006.12.024
 M. N. A. Hawlader, M. S. Uddin and M. M. Khin, “Microencapsulated PCM Thermal-Energy Storage System,” Applied Energy, Vol. 74, No. 1-2, January 2003, pp. 195-202. doi.10.1016/S0306-2619(02)00146-0
 X. Wang, J. Niu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, B. Chen and R. Zeng, “Heat Transfer of Microencapsulated PCM Slurry Flow in a Circular Tube,” AIChE journal, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2008, pp. 1110-1120. doi.10.1002/aic.11431
 W. L. Wang, X. X. Yang, Y. T. Fang, J. Ding and J. Y. Yan, “Preparation and Thermal Properties of Polyethylene Glycol/Expanded Graphite Blends for Energy Storage,” Applied Energy, Vol. 86, No. 9, September 2009, pp. 1479-1483. doi.10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.12.004
 A. M. Borreguero, M. Carmona, M. L. Sánchez, J. L. Valverde and J. F. Rodríguez, “Improvement of the Thermal Behaviour of Gypsum Blocks by the Incorporation of Microcapsules Containing Pcms Obtained by Suspension Polimeryzation with an Optimal Core/Coating Mass Ratio,” Applied Thermal Engineering, January 2010. doi.10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2010.1001.1032
 X. X. Zhang, Y. F. Fan, X. M. Tao and K. L. Yick, “Fabrication and Properties of Microcapsules and Nanocapsules Containing N-octadecane,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 88, June 2004, pp. 300-307.
 H. Z. Zhang and X. D. Wang, “Fabrication and Performances of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials Based on N-octadecane Core and Resorcinol-Modified Melamine–Formaldehyde Shell,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 332, No. 2-3, 15 January 2009, pp. 129-138.
 G. Fang, H. Li, F. Yang, X. Liu and S. Wu, “Preparation and Characterization of Nano-encapsulated N-tetradecane as Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage,” Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 153, No. 1-3, November 2009, pp. 217-221.
 E. Onder, N. Sarier and E. Cimena, “Encapsulation of Phase Change Materials by Complex Coacervation to Improve Thermal Performances of Woven Fabrics,” Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 467, No. 1-2, January 2008, pp. 63-72. doi.10.1016/j.tca.2007.11.007
 L. Sánchez-Silva, J. F. Rodríguez, A. Romero, A. M. Borreguero, M. Carmona and P. Sánchez, “Microencapsulation of PCMs with a Styrene-Methyl Methacrylate Copolymer Shell by Suspension-like Polymerisation,” Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 157, No. 1, 15 February 2010, pp. 216-222.
 Y. Ai, Y. Jin, J. Sun and D. Wei, “Microencapsulation of N-hexadecane as Phase Change Material by Suspension Polymerization,” E-Polymers, No. 098, September 2007, pp. 1-9.
 Y. Shin, D.-I. Yoo, K. Son, “Development of Thermoregulating Textile Materials with Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials (PCM). II. Preparation and Application of PCM Microcapsules,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 96, No. 5, 2005, pp. 2005-2010.
 Y. Shin, D. Yoo and K. Son, “Development of Thermoregulating Textile Materials with Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials (PCM). IV. Performance Properties and Hand of Fabrics Treated with PCM Microcapsules,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 97, No. 3, 2005, pp. 910-915. doi.10.1002/app.21846
 P. Sánchez, M. V. Sánchez-Fernandez, A. Romero, J. F. Rodríguez and L. Sánchez-Silva, “Development of Thermo-Regulating Textiles Using Paraffin Wax Microcapsules,” Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 498, No. 1-2, January 2010, pp. 16-21. doi.10.1016/j.tca.2009.09.005
 A. Sar?, C. Alkan, A. Karaipekli and O. Uzun, “Microencapsulated N-octacosane as Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage,” Solar Energy, Vol. 83, No. 10, October 2009, pp. 1757-1763.
 A. Sar?, C. Alkan and A. Karaipekli, “Preparation, Characterization and Thermal Properties of PMMA/N-heptadecane Microcapsules as Novel Solid- Liquid MicroPCM for Thermal Energy Storage,” Applied Energy, Vol. 87, No. 5, May 2010, pp. 1529-1534.
 Y. T. Fang, S. Y. Kuang, X. N. Gao and Z. G. Zhang, “Preparation and Characterization of Novel Nanoencapsulated Phase Change Materials,” Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 49, No. 12, December 2008, pp. 3704-
 H. Zhang and X. Wang, “Synthesis and Properties of Microencapsulated N-octadecane with Polyurea Shells Containing Different Soft Segments for Heat Energy Storage and Thermal Regulation,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, Vol. 93, No. 8, August 2009, pp. 1366-1376. doi.10.1016/j.solmat.2009.02.021
 P. Chaiyasat, T. Suzuki, H. Minami and M. Okubo, “Thermal Properties of Hexadecane Encapsulated in Poly (Divinylbenzene) Particles,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 112, No. 6, 2009, pp. 3257-3266.
 P. Chaiyasat, Y. Ogino, T. Suzuki and M. Okubo, “Influence of Water Domain Formed in Hexadecane Core Inside Cross-linked Capsule Particle on Thermal Properties for Heat Storage Application,” Colloid Polymer Science, Vol. 286, No. 6-7, 2008, pp. 753-759.
 P. Chaiyasat, Y. Ogino, T. Suzuki, H. Minami and M. Okubo, “Preparation of Divinylbenzene Copolymer Particles with Encapsulated Hexadecane for Heat Storage Application,” Colloid Polymer Science, Vol. 286, No. 2, 2008, pp. 217-223. doi.10.1007/s00396-007-1764-z
 J. Su, L. Ren and L. Wang, “Synthesis of Polyurethane MicroPCMs Containing N-octadecane by Interfacial Polycondensation: Influence of Styrene-Maleic Anhydride as a Surfactant,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 299, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 268-275. doi.10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.11.051
 J. S. Cho, A. Kwon and C. G. Cho, “Microencapsulation of Octadecane as a Phase-change Materials by Interfacial Polymerization in an Emulsion System,” Colloid Polymer Science, Vol. 280, No. 3, September 2002, pp. 260-266.
 X. X. Zhang, X. M. Tao, K. L. Yick and X. C. Wang, “Structure and Thermal Stability of Microencapsulated Phase-change Materials,” Colloid Polymer Science, Vol. 282, No. 4, 2004, pp. 330-336.
 X. X. Zhang, Y. F. Fan, X. M. Tao and K. L. Yick, “Crystallization and Prevention of Supercooling of Microencapsulated N-alkanes,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 281, No. 2, 15 January 2005, pp. 299-306.
 Y. F. Fan, X. X. Zhang, X. C. Wang, J. Li and Q. B. Zhu, “Super-cooling Prevention of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material,” Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 413, No. 1-2, April 2004, pp. 1-6. doi.10.1016/j.tca.2003.11.006