CRCM  Vol.5 No.5 , May 2016
Endomyocardial Fibrosis: Echocardiographic Profile
Abstract: Evolution of two-dimensional and color Doppler echocardiography identified the typical features of Endomyocardial Fibrosis (EMF) such as dense ventricular apical fibrosis, dysfunction of atrioventricular valve and sub-valvular apparatus and cavity dimensions. This is the tool used most for the diagnosis of EMF in areas where the disease is endemic in Africa. Today echocardiography is used as a screening tool to identify cases of EMF at the community level and it could be confirmed at the bed side. Background of these cases highlighted the echocardiographic features of EMF in different age groups and the oldest one reported at the age of 85 years in a female in advanced stage at this coastal district of Thoothukudi in India.
Cite this paper: Muthiah, R. (2016) Endomyocardial Fibrosis: Echocardiographic Profile. Case Reports in Clinical Medicine, 5, 180-187. doi: 10.4236/crcm.2016.55034.

[1]   Dato, I. (2014) How to Recognize Endomyocardial Fibrosis? Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine (Hagerstown).

[2]   Rossi, S., Baruffi, S., Bertuzzi, A., Miragoli, M., Corradi, D., Maestri, R., et al. (2008) Ventricular Activation Is Impaired in Aged Rat Hearts. American Journal of Physiology, Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 295, H2336-H2347.

[3]   Gupta, P.N., Valiathan, M.S., Balakrishnan, K.G., et al. (1989) Clinical Course of Endomyocardial Fibrosis. British Heart Journal, 62, 450-454.

[4]   Freers, L., Mavania-Kizza, M., Ziegler, H. and Rutaceinnio, M. (1996) Echocardiographic Dignosis of Heart Disease in Uganda. Tropical Doctor Journal, 26, 125-128.

[5]   Mocumbi, A.O., Carrilho, C., Sarathchandra, P., Ferreira, M.B., Yacoub, M.H. and Burke, M. (2010) Echocardiography Accurately Assesses the Pathological abnormalities of Chronic Endomyocardial Fibrosis. International Journal of Cardiovscular Imaging, 6, 445-452.

[6]   Mocumbi, A.O., Ferreiro, M.B., Sidi, D. and Yacoub, M.H. (2008) A Population Study of Endomyocardial Fibrosis in a Rural Area of Mozambique. New England Journal of Medicine, 369, 43-49.

[7]   Okereke, O.U.J., Chikwendu, V.C., Ihenacho. H.N.C. and Ikeh, V.O. (1991) Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Endomyocardial Fibrosis in Nigeria Using Two-Dimensional Echocardiography. Tropical Cardiology, 17, 97-103.

[8]   Connor, D.H., Somers, K., Hutt, N.S.R., Manion, W.C. and D’Arbela, P.G.D. (1967) Endomyocardial Fibrosis in Uganda (Davies’ Disease). Part I. American Heart Journal, 74, 687-709.

[9]   Vijayaraghavan, G., Davies, J., Sadanandan, S., Spry, C.J.F., Gibson, D.G. and Goodwin, J.F. (1983) Echocardiographic Features of Tropical Endomyocardial Disease in South India. British Heart Journal, 50, 450-459.

[10]   Berenstein, C.S., Pinero, G., Marcotegui, M., Brunoldi, R., Blanco, M.V. and Lerman, J. (2000) Usefulness of Echocardiography and Doppler Echocardiography in Endomyocardial Fibrosis. Journal of American Society of Echocardiography, 13, 226-230.

[11]   Trigo, J., Camacho, A., Gago, P., Candeias, R., Santos, W., Marques, N., Matos, P., Brandao, V. and Gomes, V. (2010) Endomyocardial Fibrosis. Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia, 29, 445-449.

[12]   Mocumbi, A.O., Sidi, D., Vouhe, P. and Yacoub, M. (2007) An Innovative Technique for The Relief of Right Ventricular Trabecular Cavity Obliteration in Endomyocardial Fibrosis. Journal of Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery, 134, 1070-1072.

[13]   Davies, J.N.P. (1960) Some Considerations Regarding Obscure Diseases Affecting the Mural Endocardium. American Heart Journal, 19, 600-630.

[14]   Saraiva, L.R., Carneiro, R.W., Arruda, M.B., Brindeiro Filho, D. and Lira, V. (1999) Mitral Valve Disease with Rheumatic Appearance in the Presence of Left Ventricular Endomyocardial Fibrosis. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 72, 327-332.

[15]   Metras, D., Quezzin, Coulibaly, A., Quattara, K., Bertrand, E. and Chauvet, J. (1983) Endomyocardial Fibrosis Masquerading as Rheumatic Mitral Incompetence, A Report of Six Surgical Cases. Journal of Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery, 86, 753-756.

[16]   Freers, I., Hakim, J., MyanjaKizza, H. and Parry, F. (2004) The Heart, Endomyocardial Fibrosis, Still a Mystery after 60 Years. Principles of Medicine in Africa, 837-886.

[17]   Freers, J., Masembe, V., Schmauz, R. and Mayanja, H., (2000) Endomyocardial Fibrosis (EMF) Syndrome in Uganda. The Lancet, 355, 1994-1995.