ABSTRACT Effects of different levels of compost application on the amounts and percentage distribution of organic N forms in whole soils and particle size fractions were investigated. Soil samples were collected from three plots: (a) F, only chemical fertilizers; (b) F+LC, chemical fertilizers plus low level of compost; (c) F+HC, chemical fertilizers plus high level of compost. Each soil sample was divided into five fractions: coarse sand-sized aggregate (CSA), medium sand-sized aggregate (MSA), fine sand-sized aggregate (FSA), silt-sized aggregate (SIA) and clay-sized aggregate (CLA) fractions. The sand fractions were subdivided into decayed plants (DP) and mineral particles (MP). The amounts of total N and different organic N forms in the whole soils as well as size fractions generally increased with increasing the amount of compost. In the whole soils, percentage distribution of non-hydrolysable-N and amino sugar-N increased by compost application while the distribution values of the hydrolysable ammonium- N and unidentified-N decreased. The application did not affect the distribution degree of amino acid-N. In the size fractions, the distribution values of most organic N forms increased in the CSA-DP, MSA-DP and FSA-DP fractions by compost application. In the CLA fractions, the amounts and percentage distribution of organic N forms were the highest, although the application caused decreases in their distribution values. These findings indicate that the CLA fraction merit close attention as an important reservoir of various organic N.
Cite this paper
nullNguyen, T. and Shindo, H. (2011) Effects of different levels of compost application on amounts and distribution of organic nitrogen forms in soil particle size fractions subjected mainly to double cropping. Agricultural Sciences, 2, 213-219. doi: 10.4236/as.2011.23030.
 Stevenson, F.J. (1982) Humus chemistry. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
 Kelley, K.R. and Stevenson, F.J. (1995) Forms and nature of organic N in soil. Fertilizer Research, 42, 1-11. doi:10.1007/BF00750495
 Hassink, J. (1997) The capacity of soils to preserve organic C and N by their association with clay and silt particles. Plant and Soil, 191, 77-87. doi:10.1023/A:1004213929699
 Schulten, H.R. and Leinweber, P. (1991) Influence of long-term fertilization with farmyard manure on soil organic matter: Characteristics of particle-size fractions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 12, 81-88. doi:10.1007/BF00341480
 Leinweber, P. and Reuter, G. (1992) The influence of different fertilization practices on concentrations of organic carbon and total nitrogen in particle-size fractions during 34 years of a soil formation experiment in loamy marl. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 13, 119-124. doi:10.1007/BF00337346
 Dubeux Jr., J.C.B., Sollenberger, L.E., Comerford, N.B., Scholberg, J.M., Ruggieri, A.C., Vendramini, J.M.B., Interrante, S.M. and Portier, K.M. (2006) Management intensity affects density fractions of soil organic matter from grazed bahiagrass swards. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38, 2705-2711. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.04.021
 Xu, Y.C., Shen, Q.R. and Ran, W. (2003) Content and distribution of forms of organic N in soil and particle size factions after long-term fertilization. Chemosphere, 50, 739-745. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00214-X
 Tanaka, M. and Shindo, H. (2009) Effect of continuous compost application on carbon and nitrogen contents of whole soils and their particle size fractions in a field subjected mainly to double cropping. In: Composting: Processing, Materials and Approaches, Pereira, J.C. and Bolin, J. L. Eds., Nova Science Publishers, New York, 187-197.
 Chang, E.-H., Chung, R.-S. and Tsai, Y.-H. (2007) Effect of different application rates of organic fertilizer on soil enzyme activity and microbial population. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 53, 132-140. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00122.x
 Sommerfeldt, T.G., Chang, C. and Entz, T. (1988) Long-term annual manure applications increase soil organic matter and nitrogen, and decrease carbon to nitrogen ratio. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 52, 1668-1672. doi:10.2136/sssaj1988.03615995005200060030x
 Sodhi, G.P.S., Beri, V. and Benbi, D.K. (2009) Soil aggregation and distribution of carbon and nitrogen in different fractions under long-term application of compost in rice-wheat system. Soil & Tillage Research, 103, 412-418. doi:10.1016/j.still.2008.12.005
 Angers, D.A. and N`Dayegamiye, A. (1991) Effects of manure application on carbon, nitrogen and carbohydrate contents of a silt loam and its particle-size fractions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 11, 79–82. doi:10.1007/BF00335840
 Yonebayashi, K. and Hattori, T. (1980) Improvements in the method for fractional determination of soil organic nitrogen. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 26(4), 469-481.
 Bremner, J.M. (1965) Organic forms of nitrogen. In: Method of soil analysis. Part II, Black CA et al. Eds., American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, pp 1238-1255.
 Bremner, J.M. and Mulvaney, C.S. (1982) Nitrogen-Total. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R. Eds., American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, 595-624.
 Nguyen, T.H. and Shindo, H. (2011) Quantitative and qualitative changes of humus in whole soils and their particle size fractions as influenced by different levels of compost application. Agricultural Sciences, 2(1), 1-8. doi:10.4236/as.2011.21001
 Aoyama, M. (1992) Accumulated organic matter and its nitrogen mineralization in soil particle size fractions with long-term application of farmyard manure or compost. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, in Japanese, 63, 161-168.
 Aoyama, M. and Taninai, Y. (1992) Organic matter and its mineralization in particle size and aggregate size fractions of soils with four-year application of farmyard manure. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, in Japanese, 63, 571-580.
 Schulten, H.R. and Schnitzer, M. (1998) The chemistry of soil organic nitrogen: a review. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 26, 1-15. doi:10.1007/s003740050335
 Goh, K.M. and Edmeades, D.C. (1979) Distribution and partial characterisation of acid hydrolysable organic nitrogen in six New Zealand soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 11, 127-132. doi:10.1016/0038-0717(79)90088-9
 Olson, R.V. and Swallow, C.W. (1984) Fate of labelled nitrogen fertilizer applied to winter wheat for five years. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 48, 583-586. doi:10.2136/sssaj1984.03615995004800030023x
 Kelley, K.R. and Stevenson, F.J. (1987) Effects of carbon source on immobilization and chemical distribution of fertilizer N in soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51, 946-951. doi:10.2136/sssaj1987.03615995005100040023x