ABSTRACT Five experimental bread wheat lines (BWL) were grown at the Yaqui Valley Experimental Station in Sonora, México during two consecutive growing cycles. The effect of five nitrogen fertilization (NF) treatments on protein size distribution (PSD), physical dough properties (PDP), and baking performance of the BWL was evaluated. Polymeric and monomeric proteins were evalu-ated by SE-HPLC. PDP were carried out by the National Mixograph and the TA-XT2 Texture Analyzer. Baking performance was evaluated using the straight dough method. Protein content (PC), main protein fractions (glutenins, gliadins, albumins-globulins), and mixograph development time (MDT) were significantly influenced by NF treatment and BWL but not by their interaction. On the other hand, PDP measured by the Kieffer rig, and baking performance were significantly influenced by the main factors (NF and BWL) and their interaction. The amount and timing of fertilizer applied to the BWL modified the PC, PSD, PDP, and bread loaf volume. PDP exhibited a larger variation in comparison to the PSD of glutenins. The split application of 150 kg of urea/ha (50-50-50) to all BWL showed a better loaf volume response than the same amount of urea applied at sowing (150-0-0). The application of 300 kg of urea/ha to all BWL, either at sowing or at three split applications of 100 kg of urea/ha each, resulted in higher flour unextractable polymeric protein (FUPP). On the other hand, the split application of 100-100-100 kg of urea/ha to three of the BWL represented the higher total unextractable polymeric protein (TUPP). Differences on PC and PSD were reflected on differences on PDP and bread loaf volume observed among the BWL.
Cite this paper
nullIslas-Rubio, A. , Chávez-Quiroz, K. , Vásquez-Lara, F. , Silva-Espinoza, B. , Granados-Nevárez, M. , Gonzalez-Ríos, H. and Camacho-Casas, M. (2011) Effect of split applications of urea on protein size distribution, physical dough properties, and baking performance of five experimental bread wheat lines. Agricultural Sciences, 2, 181-190. doi: 10.4236/as.2011.23025.
 Bietz, J.A. and Wall, J.S. (1975) The effect of various extractants on the subunit composition and associations of wheat glutenin. Cereal Chemistry, 52, 145-155.
 Huebner, F.R. and Wall, J.S. (1976) Fractionation and quantitative differences of glutenin from wheat varieties varying in baking quality, Cereal Chemistry, 53, 258-269.
 Gupta, R.B., Khan, K. and MacRitchie, F. (1993) Biochemical basis of flour properties in bread wheats. I. Effects of variation in quantity and size distribution of polymeric protein, Journal of Cereal Science, 18, 23-41.
 Wall, J.S. (1979) The role of wheat proteins in determining baking quality. In: Laidman, D.L., Wyn Jones, R.G., Eds., Recent Advances in the Biochemistry of Cereals. Academy, London, 275-311.
 Panozzo, J.F., Eagles, H.A. and Wootton, M. (2001) Changes in protein composition during grain development in wheat. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 52, 485-493.
 Altenbach, S.B., DuPont, F.M., Kothari, K.M., Chan, R., Johnson, E.L. and Lieu, D. (2003) Temperature, water and fertilizer influence the timing of key events during grain development in a USA spring wheat. Journal of Cereal Science, 37, 9-20.
 Johansson, E., Nilsson, H., Mazhar, H., Skerrit, J., MacRitchie, F. and Svensson, G. (2002) Seasonal effects on storage proteins and gluten strength in four Swedish wheat cultivars. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture, 82, 1305-1311.
 Johansson, E. and Svensson, G. (1998) Variation in bread-making quality: Effects of wheater parameters on protein concentration and quality in some Swedish wheat cultivars grown during the period 1975-1996. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture, 78, 109-118.
 Johansson, E., Prieto-Linde, M.L. and Svensson, G. (2004) Influence of nitrogen application rate and timing on grain protein composition and gluten strength in Swedish wheat cultivars. Journal of Plant Nutrition Soil Science, 167, 345-350.
 Johansson, E., Kuktaite, R., Anderson, A. and Prieto-Linde, M.L. (2005) Protein polymer build-up during wheat grain development: Influences of temperature and nitrogen timing. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture, 85, 473-479.
 Wieser, H. and Seilmeier, W. (1998) The influence of nitrogen fertilization on quantities and proportions of different protein types in wheat flour. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture, 76, 49-55.
 Wooding, A.R., Kavale, S., Wilson, A.J. and Stoddard, F.L. (2000) Effects of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on commercial-scale wheat quality and mixing requirements. Cereal Chemistry, 77, 791-797.
 Wooding, A.R., Kavale, S., MacRitchie, F. Stoddard, F.L. (2000) Effects of nitrogen and sulfur fertilizer on protein composition, mixing requirements, and dough strength of four wheat cultivars. Cereal Chemistry, 77, 798-807.
 Cuniberti, M.B., Roth, M.R. and MacRitchie, F. (2003) Protein composition-functionality relationships of a set of Argentinean wheats. Cereal Chemistry, 80, 132-134.
 Bangur, R., Batey, I.L., McKenzie, E. and MacRitchie, F. (1996) Dependence of extensigraph parameters on wheat protein composition measured by SE-HPLC. Journal of Cereal Science, 25, 237-241.
 Weegels, P.L., Hammer, R.J. and Schofield, J.D. (1996) Functional properties of wheat glutenin. Journal of Cereal Science, 23, 1-18.
 Gupta, R.B., Batey, I.L. and MacRitchie, F. (1992) Relationships between protein composition and functional properties of wheat flours. Cereal Chemistry, 69, 125-131.
 Gupta, R.B., Paul, J.G., Cornish, G.B., Palmer, G.A., Bekes, F. and Rathjen, A.J. (1994) Allelic variation at glutenin subunit and gliadin loci, Glu-1, Glu-3, and Gli-1, of common wheats. I. Its additive and interaction effects on dough properties. Journal of Cereal Science, 19, 9-17.
 Kieffer, R., Wieser, H., Henderson, M.H. and Graveland, A. (1998) Correlations of the breadmaking performance of wheat flour with rheological measurements on a micro-scale. Journal of Cereal Science, 27, 53-60.
 Uhlen, A.K., Sahlstrom, S., Magnus, E.M., Faergestad, E.M., Dieseth, J.A. and Ringlund, K. (2004) Influence of genotype and protein content on the baking quality of hearth bread. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture, 84, 887-894.
 Islas-Rubio, A.R., MacRitchie, F., Gandikota, S. and Hou, G. (2005) Relaciones de la composición proteínica y mediciones reológicas en masa con la calidad panadera de harinas de trigo. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana, 28, 243-251.
 AACC International (2000) Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 10th Ed. Methods 10-10B, 26-21A, 44-19, 44-08, and 54-40A. The Association: St. Paul, MN.
 Batey, I.L., Gupta, R.B. and MacRitchie, F. (1991) Use of size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography in the study of wheat flour proteins: An improved chromatographic procedure. Cereal Chemistry, 68, 207-209.
 NCSS (2007) Number Cruncher Statistical System for Windows. Kaysville, Utah, USA.
 Mitra, R. and Bhatia, C.R. (1973) Studies on protein biosynthesis in developing wheat kernels. Nuclear techniques for seed protein improvement. IAEA, Vienna, Austria.
 Kelley, K.W. (1995) Rate and time of nitrogen application for wheat following different crops. J. Prod. Agric., 8, 339-345.
 Prugar, J. and Sasek, A. (1970) Einfluβ der organischen und mineral-dungung auf die vertretung der eiweiβfraktionen im weizenkorn. Getreide Mehl, 20, 27-29.
 Jahn-Deesbach, W. and Jürgens, U. (1973) Der Einfluβ variierter stickstoffgaben auf die ertragsmorphologie und die stickstoffeinlagerung bei sommerweizen in einem gefaβversuch. IV. Mitteilung: Stickstoffeinlagerung in die verschiedenen proteinfraktionen des ganskornes und der einzelnen mehlfraktionen. Z. Acker. u Pflanzenbau, 138, 276-286.
 Doekes, G.J. and Wennekes, L.M.J. (1982) Effect of nitrogen fertilization on quantity and composition of wheat flour protein. Cereal Chemistry, 59, 276-278.
 Pechanek, U., Karger, A., Gr?ger, S., Charvat, B., Sch?ggl, G. and Lelley, T. (1997) Effect of nitrogen fertilization on quantity of flour protein components, dough properties, and breadmaking quality of wheat. Cereal Chemistry, 74, 800-805.
 Johansson, E., Prieto-Linde, M.L. and Jonsson, J.O. (2001) Effects of wheat cultivar and nitrogen application on storage protein composition and breadmaking quality. Cereal Chemistry, 78, 19-25.
 MacRitchie, F. (1999) Wheat proteins: characterization and role in flour functionality. Cereal Foods World, 44, 188-193.
 Shewry, P.R. and A.S. Tatham, A.S. (1997) Disulphide bonds in wheat gluten proteins. Journal of Cereal Science, 25, 207-227.
 Wrigley, C.W. and Békés, F. (1999) Glutenin-protein formation during the continuum from anthesis to processing. Cereal Foods World, 38, 68-74.
  Zhang, P., He, Z., Zhang, Y., Xia, X., Chen, D. and Zhang, Y. (2008) Association between % SDS-UPP (% UPP) and end-use quality in Chinese bread wheat cultivars. Cereal Chemistry, 85, 696-700.
 Suchy, J., Lukow, O.M. and Ingelin, M.E. (2000) Dough microextensibility using a 2-g mixograph and a texture analyzer. Cereal Chemistry, 77, 39-43.
 Anderssen, R.S., Bekés, F., Gras, P.W., Nikolov, A. and Wood, J.T. (2004) Wheat –flour dough extensibility as a discriminator for wheat varieties. Journal of Cereal Science, 39, 195-203.
 Bushuk, W. and Békés, F. (2002) Contribution of Protein to Flour Quality. In: Salgo, A., Tomoskozi, S. and Lasztity, R., Eds., Proc. Novel Raw Materials, Technologies and Products-New Challenge for the Quality Control. International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC), Budapest, 14-19.
 Wrigley, C.W., Andrews, J.L., Bekes, F., Gras, P.W., Gupta, R.B., MacRitchie, F. and Skerrit, J.H. (1998) Protein-protein interactions-essential to dough rheology. In: Hamer, R.J. and Hoseney, R.C., Eds., Interactions: the Keys to Cereal Quality, American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, 17-46.
 Lang, C.E., Lanning, S.P., Carlson, G.R., Kushnak, G.D., Bruckner, P.L. and Talbert, L.E. (1998) Relationship between baking quality and noodle quality in hard white spring wheat. Crop Science, 38, 823-827.
 Habernicht, D.K., Berg, J.E., Carlson, G.R., Wichman, D.M., Kushnak, G.D., Kephart, K.D., Martin, J.M. and Bruckner, P.L. (2002) Pan bread and raw Chinese noodle qualities in hard winter wheat genotypes grown in water-limited environments. Crop Science, 42, 1396-1403.
 Souza, E.J., Martin, J.M., Guttieri, M.J., O′Brien, K.M., Habernicht, D.K., Lanning, S.P., McLean, R., Carlson, G.R. and Talbert, L.E. (2004) Influence of genotype, environment, and nitrogen management on spring wheat quality. Crop Science, vol. 44, 425-42.
 Southan, M. and MacRitchie, F. (19999) Molecular weight distribution of wheat proteins. Cereal Chemistry, 76, 827-836.
 Uthayakumaran, S., Gras, P.W., Stoddard, F.L. and Bekés, F. (1999) Effect of varying the protein content and glutenin-to-gliadin ratio on the functional properties of wheat dough. Cereal Chemistry, vol. 76, 389-394.
 Wieser, H. and Kieffer, R. (2001) Correlations of the amount of gluten protein types to technological properties of wheat flours determined on a micro-scale. Journal of Cereal Science, 34, 19-27.