Early-Universe and Evolution of the Present Universe: Exact Solution Models

ABSTRACT

The evolution of the Robertson-Walker type universes consisting of radiating perfect fluid distribution coupled with zero-mass scalar field in which the gravitational parameter G varies with cosmic time t are studied. Unified descriptions of the early evolution of the universe consisting of different phases are investigated. The different properties of the cosmological solutions are discussed and the physical behaviour of the model universes during the radiation-dominated era and also during the big bang scenario are studied. Here we obtain models which are geometrically closed and are thereby ever expanding and evolve from rest from a non-singular hot origin with maximum (finite) energy density and temperature and a small minimum (non-zero) gravitational coupling G.

The evolution of the Robertson-Walker type universes consisting of radiating perfect fluid distribution coupled with zero-mass scalar field in which the gravitational parameter G varies with cosmic time t are studied. Unified descriptions of the early evolution of the universe consisting of different phases are investigated. The different properties of the cosmological solutions are discussed and the physical behaviour of the model universes during the radiation-dominated era and also during the big bang scenario are studied. Here we obtain models which are geometrically closed and are thereby ever expanding and evolve from rest from a non-singular hot origin with maximum (finite) energy density and temperature and a small minimum (non-zero) gravitational coupling G.

KEYWORDS

Evolution, Early Universe, Inflation, Radiation-Dominated Era, Big Bang, Phase Transition, Particle Creation, Relativity

Evolution, Early Universe, Inflation, Radiation-Dominated Era, Big Bang, Phase Transition, Particle Creation, Relativity

Cite this paper

nullK. Singh, T. Singh and K. Singh, "Early-Universe and Evolution of the Present Universe: Exact Solution Models,"*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 2 No. 8, 2011, pp. 817-825. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2011.28096.

nullK. Singh, T. Singh and K. Singh, "Early-Universe and Evolution of the Present Universe: Exact Solution Models,"

References

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[5] D. Kalligas, P. Wesson and C. W. F. Everitt, “Flat FRW Models with Variable G and ?,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1992, pp. 351-357. doi:10.1007/BF00760411

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[11] K. Freese, F. C. Adams, J. A. Frieman and E. Mottola, “Cosmology with Decaying Vaccum Energy,” Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 287, 1987, pp. 797-814. doi:10.1016/0550-3213(87)90129-5

[12] C. P. Singh, “Bulk Viscous Cosmology in Early Universe,” Pramana, Vol. 71, No. 1, 2008, pp. 33-48. doi:10.1007/s12043-008-0139-4

[13] G. S. Khadekar, et al. “Early Viscous Universe with Variable Cosmological and Gravitational Constants in Higher Dimensional Space Time,” Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 47, No. , 2008, pp. 3057-3074. doi:10.1007/s10773-008-9741-y

[14] R. H. Brandenberger, “Cosmology of the Very Early Universe, 8 March 2010. arxiv: 1003. 1745VI [hep-th].

[15] C. G. Bohmer, K. Bolejko, A. Krasi′nski, C. Hellaby, M.-N. Célérier, “Structures in the Universe by Exact Methods,” Cambridge University Press, 2009, p. 256, GBP80.00, USD124.00, ISBN-13: 9780521769143 General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2011, pp. 923-924. doi:10.1007/s10714-010-1126-x

[1] P. S. Wesson, “Gravity, Particles & Astrophysics,” D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1980.

[2] P. A. M. Dirac, “A New Basis for Cosmology,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 165, No. 921, pp. 199-208.

[3] J. C. Carvalho, “Unified Description of the Early Universe,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 35, No. 9, 1996, pp. 2019-2028. doi:10.1007/BF02302426

[4] M. Israclit and N. Rosen, “A Singularity-free Cosmological Model in General Relativity,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 342, 1989, pp. 627-632. doi:10.1086/167622

[5] D. Kalligas, P. Wesson and C. W. F. Everitt, “Flat FRW Models with Variable G and ?,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1992, pp. 351-357. doi:10.1007/BF00760411

[6] A. M. M. Abdel Rahman, “A Critical Density Cosmological Model with Varying Gravitational and Cosmological ‘Constants’”, General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 22, No. 6, 1990, pp. 655-657. doi:10.1007/BF00755985

[7] M. S. Berman, “Cosmological Models with a Variable Cosmological Term,” Physical Review D, Vol. 43, No. 4, 1991, pp. 1075-1078. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.43.1075

[8] A. Beesham, “Variable-G Cosmology and Creation,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 25, No. 12, 1986, pp. 1295-1298. doi:10.1007/BF00670415

[9] L. S. Levit, “The Gravitational Constant at Time Zero,” Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1980, pp. 23- 24. doi:10.1007/BF02745337

[10] R. F. Sistero, “Cosmology with G and ? Coupling Scalars,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 23, No. 11, 1991, pp. 1265-1278. doi:10.1007/BF00756848

[11] K. Freese, F. C. Adams, J. A. Frieman and E. Mottola, “Cosmology with Decaying Vaccum Energy,” Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 287, 1987, pp. 797-814. doi:10.1016/0550-3213(87)90129-5

[12] C. P. Singh, “Bulk Viscous Cosmology in Early Universe,” Pramana, Vol. 71, No. 1, 2008, pp. 33-48. doi:10.1007/s12043-008-0139-4

[13] G. S. Khadekar, et al. “Early Viscous Universe with Variable Cosmological and Gravitational Constants in Higher Dimensional Space Time,” Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 47, No. , 2008, pp. 3057-3074. doi:10.1007/s10773-008-9741-y

[14] R. H. Brandenberger, “Cosmology of the Very Early Universe, 8 March 2010. arxiv: 1003. 1745VI [hep-th].

[15] C. G. Bohmer, K. Bolejko, A. Krasi′nski, C. Hellaby, M.-N. Célérier, “Structures in the Universe by Exact Methods,” Cambridge University Press, 2009, p. 256, GBP80.00, USD124.00, ISBN-13: 9780521769143 General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2011, pp. 923-924. doi:10.1007/s10714-010-1126-x