JEP  Vol.7 No.6 , May 2016
Urban Groundwater Quality in India

The electrical conductivity, alkalinity, salinity, hardness and chemical load of the groundwater in urban area of the country are increased enormously due to excessive urban stresses by making water unsafe for drinking purposes. Therefore, the groundwater quality of Raipur city, capital of Chhattisgarh state, India has been investigated. The physico-chemical characteristic of the groundwater along with the chemical loading variations is described. Various indices were used for rating of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. The cluster and factor analysis models were used for source apportion of the contaminants.

Cite this paper: Dahariya, N. , Ramteke, S. , Sahu, B. and Patel, K. (2016) Urban Groundwater Quality in India. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7, 961-971. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.76085.

[1]   Tellam, J.H., Rivett, M.O., Israfilov, R.G. and Herringshaw, L.G. (2006) Urban Groundwater Management and Sustainability. Springer, Berlin.

[2]   Jain, S.K. (2012) Sustainable Water Management in India Considering likely Climate and Other Changes. Current Sciences, 102, 177-188.

[3]   Schwarzenbach, R.P., Egli, T., Hofstetter, T.B., Gunten, U.V. and Wehrli, B. (2010) Global Water Pollution and Human Health. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 35, 109-136.

[4]   Biswas, A.K. and Seetharam, K.E. (2008) Achieving Water Security for Asia. Water Resources Development, 24, 145- 176.

[5]   Hah, T. (2009) Taming the Anarchy: Groundwater Governance in South Asia. Resources for the Future. Washington, DC, USA and International Water Management Institute, Colombo, 310.

[6]   Basavarajappa, H.T. and Manjunatha, M.C. (2015) Groundwater Quality Analysis in Precambrian Rocks of Chitradurga District, Karnataka, India using Geo-Informatics Techdnique. Aquatic Procedia, 4, 1354-1365.

[7]   Chakraborti, D., Das, B. and Murrill, M.T. (2011) Examining India’s Groundwater Quality Management. Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 27-33.

[8]   Dagar, J.C. (2005) Salinity Research in India: An Overview. Bulletin of the National Institute of Ecology, 15, 69-80.

[9]   Dar, I.A., Sankar, K. and Dar, M.A. (2011) Spatial Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Mamundiyar Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 178, 437-447.

[10]   Ramesh, K. and Elango, L. (2012) Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Domestic and Agricultural use in TondiarRiver Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184, 3887-3899.

[11]   Rosin, K.G., Kaur, R., Singh, S.D., Singh, P. and Dubey, D.S. (2013) Groundwater Vulnerability to Contaminated Irrigation Waters—A Case of Peri-Urban Agricultural Lands around an Industrial District of Haryana, India. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 18, 200-210.

[12]   Rao, N.S. (2008) Iron Content in Groundwater of Visakhapatnam Environs, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 136, 437-447.

[13]   Tank, D.K. and Chandel, C.P.S. (2010) A Hydrochemical Elucidation of the Groundwater Composition under Domestic and Irrigated Land in Jaipur City. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 166, 69-77.

[14]   Venkateswaran, S. and Deepa, S. (2015) Assessment of Groundwater Quality Using GIS Techniques in Vaniyar Watershed, Ponnaiyar River, Tamil Nadu. Aquatic Procedia, 4, 1283-1290.

[15]   Vijay, R., Khobragade, P. and Mohapatra, P.K. (2011) Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Puri City, India: An Impact of Anthropogenic Activities. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 177, 409-418.

[16]   Patel, K.S., Dahariya, N.S., Chakradhari, S., Sahu, P., Rajhans, K.P., Ramteke, S., Lata, L. and Milosh, H. (2015) Sewage Pollution in Central India. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 787-796.

[17]   Nielsen, D.M. and Nielsen, G.L. (2000) The Essential Handbook of Groundwater Sampling. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

[18]   APHA (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st Edition, APHA, AWWA and WEF, Washington DC.

[19]   Nollet Leo, M.L. and De Gelder Leen, S.P. (2007) Handbook of Water Analysis. 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[20]   BIS (Bureau of Indian Standard) (2009) Drinking Water—Specification. 2nd Edition, New Delhi.

[21]   WHO (2011) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. 4th Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva.

[22]   Liu, C.W., Lin, K.H. and Kuo, Y.M. (2003) Application of Factor Analysis in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Blackfoot Disease Area in Taiwan. Science of the Total Environment, 313, 77-89.

[23]   Reghunath, R., Murthy, T.R.S. and Raghavan, B.R. (2002) The Utility of Multivariate Statistical Techniques in Hydrogeochemical Studies: An Example from Karnataka, India. Water Resources, 36, 2437-2442.

[24]   Shrestha, S. and Kazama, F. (2007) Assessment of Surface Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of the Fuji River Basin, Japan. Environmental Modelling and Software, 22, 464-475.

[25]   Singh, K.P., Malik, A., Mohan, D. and Sinha, S. (2004) Multivariate Statistical Techniques for the Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water Quality of Gomti River (India): A Case Study. Water Resources, 38, 3980-3992.

[26]   Kaiser, H.F. (1958) The Varimax Criterion for Analytical Rotation in Factor Analysis. Psychometrika, 23,187-200.

[27]   Kelley, W.P. (1940) Permissible Composition and Concentration of Irrigation Water. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 66, 607-613.

[28]   Richards, L.A. (1954) Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils, Agricultural Handbook 60. USDA and IBH Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, 98-99.

[29]   Wilcox, L.V. (1955) Classification and Use of Irrigation Waters. USDA, Circular 969, Washington DC.