Back
 JWARP  Vol.8 No.5 , May 2016
Utilization of Infused Tea Leaves (Camellia sinensis) for the Removal of Pb2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ Ions from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies
Abstract: In this study, infused tea leaves as a low-cost adsorbent have been used in the removal of the Pb2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution. The adsorption study was carried out in a batch process and the effects of parameters such as initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial metal ion concentration were investigated. Experimental results showed that the maximum adsorption of metal ions occurred at pH 5 for Pb2+ and Fe2+ and at pH 6 for Cd2+. Adsorption of metal ions increased with increasing adsorbent concentration and contact time. The isothermal data for the adsorption of metal ions by infused tea leaves were found to fit well with the Langmuir equations. Based on the experimental data of the Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacities of the metal ions onto the infused tea leaves were found in the order of Pb2+ > Cd2+ > Fe2+ with the adsorption capacities of 26.32 mg&#183g&#451, 14.29 mg&#183g&#451 and 12.38 mg&#183g&#451 respectively. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order reaction and the corresponding rate constant were found to be 4.30 × 10&#453 g&#183mg&#451&#183min&#451, 1.75 × 10&#451 g&#183mg&#451&#183min&#451 and 1.45 × 10&#452 g&#183mg&#451&#183min&#451 for Pb2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ ions respectively.
Cite this paper: Yue, C. , Chong, K. , Eng, C. and Loh, L. (2016) Utilization of Infused Tea Leaves (Camellia sinensis) for the Removal of Pb2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ Ions from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 568-582. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.85047.
References

[1]   Al-Othman, Z.A., Ali, R. and Naushad, M. (2012) Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Aqueous Medium by Activated Carbon Prepared from Peanut Shell: Adsorption Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 184, 238-247.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.01.048

[2]   Xing, S.T., Zhao, M.Q. and Ma, Z.C. (2011) Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Red Loess as an Adsorbent. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 23, 1497-1502.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(10)60581-5

[3]   Mathialagan, T. and Viraraghavan, T. (2001) Adsorption of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions by Perlite. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B94, 291-303.

[4]   Yan, G. and Viraraghavan, T. (2001) Heavy Metal Removal in a Biosorption Column by Immobilized M. rouxii Biomass. Bioresource Technology, 78, 243-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00020-7

[5]   Kaewsarn, P. and Yu, Q. (2001) Cadmium(II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Pre-Treated Biomass of Marine Alga Padina sp. Environmental Pollution, 112, 209-213.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00114-7

[6]   Bakkaloglu, I., Butter, T.J., Evison, L.M., Holland, F.S. and Hancock, I.C. (1998) Screening of Various Types Biomass for Removal and Recovery of Heavy Metals (Zn, Cu, Ni) by Biosorption, Sedimentation and Desorptionl. Water Science Technology, 38, 269-277.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0273-1223(98)00587-3

[7]   Yetis, U., Ozcengiz, G., Filiz, B., Ergen, N., Erbay, A. and Dolek, A. (1998) Heavy Metal Biosorption by White-Rot Fungi. Water Science and Technology, 38, 323-330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0273-1223(98)00515-0

[8]   Baik, W.Y., Bae, J.H., Cho, K.W. and Hartmeier, W.W. (2002) Biosorption of Heavy Metals Using Whole Mold Mycelia and Parts Thereof. Bioresource Technology, 81, 167-170.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00148-1

[9]   Matis, K.A., Zouboulis, A.I. and Lazaridis, N.K. (2003) Heavy Metals Removal by Biorsorption and Flotation. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 3, 143-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00148-1

[10]   Yu, M.H. (2005) Environmental Toxicology—Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants. 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[11]   Friberg, L., Piscator, M., Nordberg, G.F. and Kjellstrom, T. (1974) Cadmium in the Environmental. 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[12]   Saeed, A., Iqbal, M. and Akhtar, M.W. (2005) Removal and Recovery of Lead(II) from Single and Multimetal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) Solution by Crop Milling Waste (Black Gram Husk). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 117, 64-67.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2004.09.008

[13]   Iqbal, M., Saeed, A. and Zafar, S.I. (2009) FTIR Spectrophotometry, Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Modeling, Ion Exchange, and EDX Analysis for Understanding the Mechanism of Cd2+ and Pb2+ Removal by Mango Peel Waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164, 161-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.07.141

[14]   Gong, J.M., Wang, X.Q., Shao, X.L., Yuan, S., Yang, C.L. and Hu, X.L. (2012) Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions by Hierarchically Structured Magnetite-Carbonaceous Spheres. Talanta, 101, 45-52.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2012.08.035

[15]   Bailey, S.E., Olin, T.J., Bricka, R.M. and Adrian, D. (1999) A Review of Potentially Low-Cost Sorbents for Heavy Metals. Water Research, 33, 2469-2479.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00475-8

[16]   Babel, S. and Kurniawan, T.A. (2003) Low-Cost Adsorbents for Heavy Metals Uptake from Contaminated Water: A Review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 97, 219-243.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00263-7

[17]   Serencam, H., Gundogdu, A., Uygur, Y., Kemer, B., Bulut, V.N., Duran, C., Soylak, M. and Tufekci, M. (2008) Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solution by Nordmann Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. Subsp. Nordmanniana) Leaves. Bioresource Technology, 99, 1992-2000.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.03.021

[18]   Food and Agriculture Organization (2012) Tea. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tea

[19]   Basu, M.A., Bera, B. and Rajan, A. (2012) Tea Statistics: Global Scenario.
http://www.teaboard.gov.in/pdf/Tea%20Statistics%20Global%20Scenario.pdf

[20]   World Tea News (2013) Discovering Tea in Malaysia.
http://www.worldteanews.com/profiles/discovering-tea-malaysia#sthash2KxXBNQo.dpbs

[21]   Gupta, S. and Babu, B.V. (2009) Removal of Toxic Metal Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solutions Using Sawdust as Adsorbent: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Regeneration Studies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 150, 352-365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2009.01.013

[22]   Ho, Y.S. (2005) Effect of pH on Lead Removal from Water Using Tree Fern as the Sorbent. Bioresource Technology, 96, 1292-1296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.10.011

[23]   Ozsoy, H.D. and Kumbur, H. (2006) Adsorption of Cu(II) Ions on Cotton Boll. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136, 911-916.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.01.035

[24]   Gercel, O. and Gercel, H.F. (2007) Adsorption of Lead(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon Prepared from Biomass Plant Material of Euphorbia rigida. Chemical Engineering Journal, 132, 289-297.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2007.01.010

[25]   Saeed, A., Iqbal, M. and Holl, M.W. (2009) Kinetic, Equilibrium and Mechanism of Cd2+ Removal from Aqueous Solution by Mungbean Husk. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168, 1467-1475.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.03.062

[26]   Örnek, A., Özacar, M. and Sengil, I.A. (2007) Adsorption of Lead onto Formaldehyde or Sulphuric Acid Treated Acorn Waste: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 37, 192-200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2007.04.011

[27]   Özacar, M. and Sengil, I.A. (2005) Adsorption of Metal Complex Dyes from Aqueous Solutions by Pine Sawdust. Bioresource Technology, 96, 791-795.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.07.011

[28]   Salim, R., Al-Subu, M.M. and Sahrhage, E. (1992) Uptake of Cadmium from Water by Beech Leaves. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxicology, 27, 603-627.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529209375751

[29]   Lu, W.B., Shi, J.J., Wang, C.H. and Chang, J.S. (2006) Biosorption of Lead, Copper and Cadmium by an Indigenous Isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 Possessing High Heavy-Metal Resistance. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 134, 80-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.10.036

[30]   Gok, C. and Aytas, S. (2009) Biosorption of Uranium(VI) from Aqueous Solution Using Calcium Alginate Beads. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168, 369-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.02.063

[31]   Yao, L., Ye, Z.F., Tong, M.P., Lai, P. and Ni, J.R. (2009) Removal of Cr3+ from Aqueous Solution by Biosorption with Aerobic Granules. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 165, 250-255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.09.110

[32]   Teixeira Tarley, C.R. and Zezzi Arruda, M.A. (2004) Biosorption of Heavy Metals Using Rice Milling by-Products. Characterisation and Application for Removal of Metals from Aqueous Effluents. Chemosphere, 54, 987-995.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.09.001

[33]   Huheey, J.E. (1983) Electronegativity: Pauling, Allred-Rochow, and Mulliken-Jaffé Scales. Inorganic Chemistry, Harper & Row, New York.

[34]   Cotton, F.A., Wilkinson, G., Murillo, C.A. and Bochmann, M. (1999) Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. 6th Edition, Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.

[35]   Matos, G.D. and Arruda, M.A.Z. (2003) Vermicompost as Natural Adsorbent for Removing Metal Ions from Laboratory Effluents. Process Biochemistry, 39, 81-88.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(02)00315-1

[36]   Chen, J.P., Hong, L., Wu, S. and Wang, L. (2002) Elucidation of Interactions between Metal Ions and Ca Alginate-Based on Ion-Exchange Resin by Spectroscopic Analysis and Modeling Simulation. Langmuir, 18, 9413-9421.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la026060v

[37]   Puranik, P.R. and Paknikar, K.M. (1999) Influence of Co-Cations on Biosorption of Lead and Zinc—A Comparative Evaluation in Binary and Multimetal Systems. Bioresource Technology, 70, 269-276.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00037-1

[38]   Kiran, I., Akar, T. and Tunali, S. (2005) Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from Aqueous Solutions by Pretreated Biomass of Neurospora crassa. Process Biochemistry, 40, 3550-3558.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2005.03.051

[39]   Iqbal, M. and Edyvean, R.G.J. (2004) Biosorption of Lead, Copper and Zinc Ions on Loofa Sponge Immobilized Biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Minerals Engineering, 17, 217-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2003.08.014

[40]   Ho, Y.S., Huang, C.T. and Huang, H.W. (2002) Equilibrium Sorption Isotherm for Metal Ions on Tree Fern. Process Biochemistry, 37, 1421-1430.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(02)00036-5

[41]   Ho, Y.S. (2004) Pseudo-Isotherms Using a Second Order Kinetic Expression Constant. Adsorption, 10, 151-158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:ADSO.0000039870.28835.09

[42]   Amir, F.T., Tahereh, K. and Mansooreh, S. (2009) Adsorption of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions on Sulfurized Activated Carbon Prepared from Nut Shells. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 165, 1159-1164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.10.131

[43]   Montanher, S.F., Oliveira, E.A. and Rollemberg, M.C. (2005) Removal of Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Sorption onto Rice Bran. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 117, 207-211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2004.09.015

[44]   Blázquez, A., Mata, Y.N., Ballester, M.L., González, F. and Munoz, J.A. (2009) Sugar-Beet Pulp Pectin Gels as Biosorbent for Heavy Metals: Preparation and Determination of Biosorption and Desorption Characteristics, Chemical Engineering Journal, 150, 289-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2009.01.001

[45]   Tumen, F., Altundogan, H.S. and Arslan, N.E. (2007) Copper Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Sugar Beet Pulp Treated by NaOH and Citric Acid. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 149, 432-439.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.04.008

[46]   Lee, C.K., Wong, K.K., Low, K.S. and Haron, M.J. (2003) Removal of Cu and Pb by Tartaric Acid Modified Rice Husk from Aqueous Solutions. Chemosphere, 50, 23-28.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00598-2

[47]   Amarasinghe, B.M.W.P.K. and Williams, R.A. (2007) Tea Waste as a Low Cost Adsorbent for the Removal of Cu and Pb from Wastewater. Chemical Engineering Journal, 132, 299-309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2007.01.016

[48]   Malkoc, E. and Nuhoglu, Y. (2006a) Fixed Bed Studies for the Sorption of Chromium(VI) onto Tea Factory Waste. Chemical Engineering Science, 61, 4363-4372.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2006.02.005

[49]   Mondal, M.K. (2009) Removal of Pb(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Activated Tea Waste: Adsorption on a Fixed-Bed Column. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 3266-3271.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.05.025

[50]   Malkoc, E. and Nuhoglu, Y. (2006b) Removal of Ni(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Waste of Tea Factory: Adsorption on a Fixed-Bed Column. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 135, 328-336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.11.070

[51]   Malkoc, E. and Nuhoglu, Y. (2007) Potential of Tea Factory Waste for Chromium(VI) Removal from Aqueous Solutions: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies. Separation and Purification Technology, 54, 291-298.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2006.09.017

[52]   Malkoc, E. and Nuhoglu, Y. (2005) Investigations of Nickel(II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Tea Factory Waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 127, 120-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.06.030

[53]   Çay, S., Uyanik, A. and Özasik, A. (2004) Single and Binary Component Adsorption of Copper(II) and Cadmium(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Tea-Industry Waste. Separation and Purification Technology, 38, 273-280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2003.12.003

[54]   Tee, T.W. and Khan, A.R.M. (1988) Removal of Lead Cadmium, Zinc by Waste Tea Leaves. Environmental Technology Letters, 9, 1223-1232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593338809384685

[55]   Ho, Y.S. and McKay, G. (1998) Kinetic Models for the Sorption of Dye from Aqueous Solution by Wood. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 76, 183-191.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1205/095758298529326

[56]   Ho, Y.S. and McKay, G. (1999) Pseudo-Second Order Model for Sorption Processes. Process Biochemistry, 34, 451-465.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(98)00112-5

[57]   Hameed, B.H., Mahmoud, D.K. and Ahmad, A.L. (2008) Equilibrium Modeling and Kinetic Studies on the Adsorption of Basic Dye by a Low-Cost Adsorbent: Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Bunch Waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 158, 65-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.034

[58]   Shahmohammadi-Kalalagh, S.H., Babazadeh, H., Nazemi, A.H. and Manshour, M. (2011) Isotherm and Kinetic Studies on Adsorption of Pb, Zn and Cu by Kaolinite. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 9, 243-255.

[59]   Boparai, H.K., Joseph, M. and O’Carroll, D.M. (2011) Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Cadmium Ion Removal by Adsorption onto Nanozerovalent Iron Particles. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186, 458-465.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.029

[60]   Rocha, C.G., Zaia, D.A.M., Alfaya, R.V.S. and Alfaya, A.A.S. (2009) Use of Rice Straw as Biosorbent for Removal of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) Ions in Industrial Effluents. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 166, 383-388.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.11.074

 
 
Top