JSSM  Vol.2 No.3 , September 2009
E-Governance for Improved Public Service Delivery in Fiji
Author(s) Rafia NAZ
Using ICT in the form of e-governance could yield great benefits in the reform and modernization of the public sector. The experience of e-governance in a number of developed and developing countries has shown that ICT can be a tool for greater service delivery with the goal of improving service quality. E-governance can also promote ‘good govern-ance’, that is, greater civic engagement can increase opportunities for direct representation and voice, and support for increased democracy. This paper discusses and presents the survey findings that seek to test the role of e-governance in improving service delivery by altering the principal-agent relationship. It further seeks to elucidate the quality aspects of public service. Policy recommendations to achieve the benefits of e-governance in Fiji are presented. Strong leadership is required to implement e-governance to capture and internalize the benefits of quality services and satisfied customers.

Cite this paper
nullR. NAZ, "E-Governance for Improved Public Service Delivery in Fiji," Journal of Service Science and Management, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2009, pp. 190-203. doi: 10.4236/jssm.2009.23023.
[1]   R. Budhiraja, “Role of standards and architecture for e-governance projects,” 2005, http://www.yashada.org.

[2]   R. W. Harris, “Information and communication tech- nologies for poverty alleviation,” UNDP-APDIP, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2004, http://www.apdip.net.

[3]   R. Heeks, “Understanding e-governance for development, i-government working paper series,” Institute for Deve- lopment Policy and Management, University of Man-chester, No. 11, 2001, http://www.man.ac-uk/idpm/idpm_dp.htm#ig.

[4]   H. M. Rajashekar, “Efficiency and transparency of e-governance in India: A case study of Karnataka,” 2002.

[5]   V. K. Jain and A. K. Ramani, “Concepts and applications of e-governance: Illustrations through some case studies,” Journal of the Eighth National Conference on E-Governance, pp. 65-71, 2005.

[6]   R. Crocombe, “The South Pacific,” 7th Edition, IPS Pub-lications, University of the South Pacific, Suva, 2008.

[7]   V. Tanzi, “Corruption around the world: Causes, consequences, scope and cures,” IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 559-94, 1998.

[8]   World Bank, “World development report 2004: Making services work for poor people,” A publication of the World Bank and Oxford University Press, In APDIP E-Note 11, Pro-Poor Public Service Delivery With ICTs. “Making local e-governance work towards achieving the millennium development goals,” 2007, http://www.apdip.net/apdipenote/11.pdf.

[9]   EIU, “The e-readiness rankings, economist intelligence unit,” 2003, http://graphics.eiu.com /files /ad_pdfs/eReady_2003.pdf.

[10]   A. Gani, H. Nakagawa, R. Duncan, and T. Toatu, “Good governance indicators for seven Pacific island countries,” 2007, http://www.usp.ac.fj/fileadmin/files/Institutes/piasdg/governance_papers/2007_Governance-Indicator.pdf.

[11]   UNDP/APDIP, APDIP E-Note 11, Pro-Poor Public Service Delivery with ICTs, “Making local e-governance work towards achieving the millennium development goals,” 2007, http://www.apdip.net/apdipenote/11.pdf.

[12]   Cabinet Office, “E-government: A strategic framework for public services in the information age,” Cabinet Of-fice, London, 2000.

[13]   Cabinet Office, “E.Gov: Electronic government services for the 21st century,” Cabinet Office, London, 2001.

[14]   C. Carter and M. Gieco, “New deals, no wheels: Social exclusion, tele-options and electronic ontology,” Urban Studies, Vol. 37, No. 10, pp. 1735–1748, 2000.

[15]   I. Chatrie and P. Wraight, “Public strategies for the information society in member states of the European Union European information society projects,” European Union, Brussels, 2000.

[16]   P. Corrigan and J. Paul, “Reconstructing public management: A new responsibility for the public and a case study of local government,” International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 417-432, 1997.

[17]   N. Curthoys and J. Crabtree, “Smartgov: Renewing electronic government for improved service delivery,” Price Waterhouse Coopers, London, 2003.

[18]   IBM, “The net result: Social inclusion in the information society,” London, IBM, 1997.

[19]   IBM, “E-Government on demand,” EU E-Government Conference, Villa Erba, Como, Italy, July 7–8, 2003.

[20]   H. Margetts and P. Dunleavy, “Better public services through e-government,” National Audit Office, London, 2002.

[21]   R. Silcock, “What is e-government?” Parliamentary Af-fairs, No. 54, pp. 88–101, 2001.

[22]   A. Augus, S. Barker, and J. Kandampully, “An exploratory study of service quality in the Malaysian public service sector,” International Journal of Quality & Reliabil-ity Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 177-190, 2007.

[23]   H. B. Kang, “Cleaning up the city government of Seoul: A systematic approach,” The Anti-Corruption Symposium: The Role of Online Procedures in Promoting Good Governance, Seoul Institute for Transparency, Seoul, pp. 43, August 30-31, 2001.

[24]   L. Ka?ubien? and P. Vanagas, “Assumptions of e-government services quality evaluation,” Engineering Economics, Vol. 5, No. 55, pp. 68-74, 2007.

[25]   M. Ahmed, “E-governance initiatives in Bangladesh: An analysis of strategy formulation for reinventing good governance,” Department of Business Administration, Jahangirnagar University, 2004, http://moshtaq.net/Papers/Strategies%20for%20eGovernance.htm.

[26]   F. Bassanini, “Good governance strategies: A prospect for integration reflections from the Italian experience,” Fifth Global Forum on Reinventing Government, Good Government Strategies for the 21st Century, Mexico, November 3-7, 2003.

[27]   S. Bhatnagar, “The economic and social impact of e-government,” A Background Technical Paper for the Proposed UNDESA Publication—E-Government, the Citizen and the State: Debating Governance in the Infor-mation Age, 2003.

[28]   S. Bhatnagar, “Transparency and corruption: Does e-government help?” DRAFT Paper Prepared for the Compilation of CHRI 2003 Report OPEN SESAME: Looking for the Right to Information in the Common-wealth, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, 2003, http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/~subhash/pdfs/CHRIDraftPaper2003.pdf#search='can%20egovernance%20curb%20corruption%20in%20tax%20departments.

[29]   S. Bhatnagar, “Administrative corruption: How does e-governance help—on e-governance solutions,” 2003, http://www.apdip.net /documents/WhitePaper.

[30]   S. Bhatnagar, “Reducing corruption in service delivery to citizens,” Presentation Delivered at Anti-Corruption Thematic Groups One Day Clinic on Building ICT Applications for Combating Administrative Corruption, 2005, http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/PREMWK2005/ICT/bhatnagar-ICT-corruption%20servdel.ppt.

[31]   S. Bhatnagar, “A framework for ICT use to combat ad-ministrative corruption,” Presentation Delivered at Anti- Corruption Thematic Groups One Day Clinic on Building ICT Applications for Combating Administrative Corrup-tion, 2005, http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/PREMWK2005/ICT/bhatnagar-ICT%20and%20corruption.ppt >.

[32]   M. C. Borwankar, “The status of e-governance in Maharashtra: An exploratory study,” Ashwattha, Vol. 4, No. 2, April-June 2004, http://www.yashada.org/.2004.

[33]   Y. H. Cho and B. D. Choi, “E-government to combat corruption: The case of Seoul metropolitan government,” International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 27, No. 10, pp. 719-735, 2004.

[34]   R. R. Fuliya and G. S. Bansal, “Nai-Disha Eka Sewa Kendra (NDESK): Improve service delivery in gov-ernment,” Journal of the Eighth National Conference on eGovernance, pp. 54-57, 2005.

[35]   C. K. Prahalad, “The fortune of the bottom of the pyramid,” Eradicating Poverty through Profits, Wharton School Publishing, United States of America, 2005.

[36]   A. Sarah, “Information technology & governance,” 2nd Year NALSAR University of Law, Shamirpet, 2003, http://loksatta.org/itgovernance.pdf#search='Information%20Technology%20%26%20Governance'.

[37]   H. Chen, “Digital government: Technologies and practices,” Decision Support Systems, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 223-7, 2003.

[38]   J. Choudrie and A. Papazafeiropoulou, “Lessons learnt from the broadband diffusion in South Korea and the UK: Implications for future government intervention in technology diffusion,” Electronic Government, an Interna-tional Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 373-85, 2006.

[39]   R. K. Mitra and M. P. Gupta, “Analysis of issues of e-government in Indian police,” Electronic Government, an International Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 97-125, 2007.

[40]   C. Halaris, B. Magoutas, X. Papadomichelaki, and G. Mentzas, “Classification and synthesis of quality ap-proaches in e-government services,” Internet Research, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 378-401, 2007.

[41]   Accenture, “Governments closing gap between political rhetoric and e-government reality,” 2001, http://www.accenture.com/xd/xd.asp?it=enWeb&xd=industries/government/gove_study.xml.

[42]   M. Asgarkhani, “E-governance in Asia Pacific,” Pro-ceedings of the International Conference on Governance in Asia, Hong Kong, 2002.

[43]   M. Asgarkhani, “A strategic framework for electronic government,” Proceedings of the 22nd National IT Con-ference, Sri Lanka, pp. 57-65, 2003.

[44]   M. Asgarkhani, “Digital government: From vision to the reality of strategy implementation,” Proceedings of the International Conference on E-Governance, Sri Lanka, pp. 36-46, 2004.

[45]   V. Nath, “Digital governance,” 2003, http://www.cddc.vt.edu /digitalgov/gov-cases.html.

[46]   C. Gronroos, F. Heinonen, K. Isoniemi, and M. Lindholm, “The NetOffer model: A case example from the virtual marketplace,” Management Decision, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 243-52, 2000.

[47]   J. Rowley, “An analysis of the e-service literature: Towards a research agenda,” Internet Research, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 339-59, 2006.

[48]   J. Pinho, I. Macedo, and A. Monteiro, “The impact of online SERVQUAL dimensions on certified accountant satisfaction: The case of taxation services,” EuroMed Journal of Business, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 154-72, 2007.

[49]   V. A. Zeithaml, A. Parasuraman, and A. Malhotra, “A conceptual framework for understanding e-service quality: Implications for future research and managerial practice,” Working Paper Report, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA, No. 00-115, 2000.

[50]   M. Akesson, P. Skale′n, and B. Edvardsson, “Govern-ment and service orientation: Gaps between theory and practice,” International Journal of Public Sector Man-agement, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 74-92, 2008.

[51]   S. Jones, R. Hackney, and Z. Irani, “Towards e-government transformation: Conceptualizing ‘citizen engage-ment’ a research note,” Transforming Government: Peo-ple, Process and Policy, Emerald Group Publishing Lim-ited, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 145-152, 2007.

[52]   M. Meuter, A. Ostrom, R. Roundtree, and M. Bitner, “Self-service technology: Understand customer satisfac-tion with technology-based service encounters,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 50-64, 2000.

[53]   A. Parasuraman and D. Grewal, “The impact of technol-ogy on the quality-value-loyalty chain: A research agenda,” Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 168-74, 2000.

[54]   J. Santos, “E-service quality: A model of virtual service quality dimensions,” Managing Service Quality, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 233-246, 2003.

[55]   J. Buckley, “E-service and the public sector,” Managing Service Quality, Vol. 13, pp. 6, pp. 453-62, 2003.

[56]   R. Heeks, “Information technology and the management of corruption,” Development in Practice, No. 9, pp. 184- 189, 1999.

[57]   G. B. Reschenthaler and F. Thompson, “The information revolution and the new public management,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 125-143, 1996.

[58]   B. Chan and S. Al-Hawamdeh, “The development of e-commerce in Singapore: The impact of government ini-tiatives,” Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 278-88, 2002.

[59]   P. Shackleton, J. Fisher, and L. Dawson, “E-government services in the local government context: An Australian case study,” Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 88-100, 2006.

[60]   P. A. Dabholkar and R. P. Bagozzi, “An attitudinal model of technology-based self service: Moderating effects of consumer traits and situational factors,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 184- 201, 2002.

[61]   J. Cox and B. G. Dale, “Key quality factors in web site design and use: An examination,” International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 862-88, 2002.

[62]   G. Goldkuhl, “What does it mean to serve the citizen in e-services? Towards a practical theory founded in socio- instrumental pragmatism,” International Journal of Public Information Systems, Vol. 3, pp. 135-159, 2007.

[63]   K. Layne and J. Lee, “Developing fully functional e-government: A four-stage model,” Government Infor-mation Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 122-13, 2001.

[64]   J. B. MacDonald and K. Smith, “The effects of technol-ogy-mediated communication on industrial buyer behav-ior,” Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 107-16, 2004.

[65]   M. A. Wimmer, “Integrated service modeling for online one-stop government,” Electronic Markets, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 149-156, 2002.

[66]   R. D. Pathak, G. Singh, R. F. I. Smith, and R. Naz, “Con-tribution of information and communication technology in improving government transparency and accountability in Fiji,” In the Conference of the Network of Asia -Pacific Schools Institute of Public Administration and Governance, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India, De-cember 5-7, 2008.

[67]   J. Fitzsimmons and M. Fitzsimmons, “Service manage-ment: Operations strategy, and information technology,” Irwin and McGraw-Hill, New York, 1997.

[68]   H. H. Bauer, M. Hammerschmidt, and T. Falk, “Measur-ing the quality of e-banking portals,” International Jour-nal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 153-75, 2005.

[69]   G. Lee and H. Lin, “Customer perceptions of e-service quality in online shopping,” International Journal of Re-tail and Distribution Management, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 161-76, 2005.

[70]   V. Zeithaml, A. Parasuraman, and A. Malhotra, “Service quality delivery through web sites: A critical review of extant knowledge,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 362-75, 2002.

[71]   V. A. Zeithaml, A. Parasuraman, and A. Malhotra, “An empirical examination of the service quality-value- loyalty chain in an electronic channel, working paper,” University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2002.

[72]   X. Zhang and V. R. Prybutok, “A consumer perspective of e-service quality,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 461-77, 2005.

[73]   A. Parasuraman and G. M. Zinkhan, “Marketing to and serving customers through the internet: An overview and research agenda,” Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 286-95, 2002.

[74]   J. J. Laffont and D. Martimort, “The theory of incen-tives,” The Principal-Agent Model, Princeton University Press, New York, 2002.

[75]   J. E. Lane, “Public principals and their agents,” 2003, http://www.spp. nus.edu.sg/docs/wp/wp32.pdf .

[76]   R. Naz, R. D. Pathak, M. H. Rahman, K. N. Agarwal, and R. F. I. Smith, “The potential for using IT to cut corrup-tion in service delivery: A case study of services to farm-ers in Fiji,” International Journal of Effective Manage-ment, ISSN: (Online) 1547-3708, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 39- 52, 2006, http://www.effectivemanagment.org/pubs/Jun2006/naz.pdf.

[77]   “The economist,” In J. Teicher, H. Owens, and N. Dow, E-Government: A New Route to Public Sector Quality, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 384-393, June 24, 2000.

[78]   D. Chaffey and W. Edgar, “Measuring online service quality, marketing online: Internet marketing and e-mar- keting knowledge,” 2002, http://www.marke-ting-online.co.uk/sqpap.htm.

[79]   D. Gefen, “Customer loyalty in e-commerce,” Journal of the Association for Information Systems, No. 3, pp. 27- 51, 2002.

[80]   A. Parasuraman, “Technology readiness and e-service quality: Insights for effective e-commerce seminar se-ries,” North California State University, Raleigh, April 17, 2002.

[81]   W. E. Sasser, R. P. Olsen, and D. D. Wyckoff, “Man-agement of service operations,” Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA, 1978.

[82]   E. M. Berman, “Productivity in public and non-profit organizations,” Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1998.

[83]   R. Johnston, “Service operations management: Return to roots,” International Journal of Operations and Produc-tion Management, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 104–124, 1999.

[84]   R. W. Schmenner and M. L. Swink, “On theory in opera-tions management,” Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 97–113, 1998.

[85]   R. W. Schmenner, “Service businesses and productivity,” Decision Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 333–347, 2004.

[86]   R. W. Schmenner, “How can service businesses survive and prosper?” Sloan Management Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 21–32, 1986.

[87]   K. Clow and D. Vorhies, “Building a competitive advantage for service firms,” Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 22-32, 1993.

[88]   M. Gowan, J. Seymour, S. Ibarreche, and C. Lackey, “Service quality in a public agency: Same expectations but different perceptions by employees, managers and customers,” Journal of Quality Management, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 275-91, 2001.

[89]   D. Hensher, P. Stopher, and P. Bullock, “Service quality —developing a service quality index in the provision of commercial bus contracts,” Transportation Research Part A, No. 37, pp. 499-517, 2003.

[90]   A. Parasuraman, V. A. Zeithaml, and L. L. Berry, “SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring con-sumer perceptions of service quality,” Journal of Retail-ing, Vol. 64, No. 1, pp. 12-40, 1988.

[91]   S. Lagrosen and Y. Lagrosen, “Management of service quality—differences in values, practices and outcomes,” Managing Service Quality, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 370-81, 2003.

[92]   B. Perrott, “Managing strategic issues in the public ser-vice,” Long Range Planning, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 337-45, 1996.

[93]   E. Brynjolfsson and L. Hill, “Is information systems spending productive? New evidence and new results,” Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on In-formation System, pp. 47-64, 1993.

[94]   G. Lee and J. L. Perry, “Are computers boosting produc-tivity?” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 77-102, 2002.

[95]   F. R. Linchtenberg, “The output contribution of computer equipment and personnel: A firm level analysis,” Work-ing Paper Number: 4540, MA, Cambridge, National Bu-reau of Economic Research, 1993.

[96]   S. Zuboff, “In the age of the smart machine: The future of work and power,” Basic Books, New York, 1998.

[97]   P. B. Crosby, “Quality is free,” MacGraw Hill, New York, 1979.

[98]   W. E. Deming, “Out of the crisis,” MIT Center for Ad-vanced Engineering Study, Cambridge, Mass, 1986.

[99]   J. M. Juran and F. M. Gryna, “Juran’s quality control handbook,” 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, pp. 4.9-4.12, 1988.

[100]   C. Gronroos, “A service quality model and its market implications,” European Journal of marketing, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 36-44, 1984.

[101]   C. Gronroos, “Strategic management and marketing in the service sector,” Marketing Science Institution, Cam-bridge, MA, 1983.

[102]   A. Parasuraman, V. A. Zeithaml, and L. L. Berry, “A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for further research,” Journal of Marketing, Fall, No. 48, pp. 41-50, 1985.

[103]   A. Parasuraman, L. L. Berry, and V. A. Zeithaml, “Un-derstanding customer expectations of service,” Sloan Management Review, Spring, No. 32, pp. 39-48, 1991.

[104]   A. Parasuraman, L. L. Berry, and V.A. Zeithaml, “Re-finement and reassessment of the SERVQUAL scale,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 67, No. 4, pp. 420-50, 1991.

[105]   N. Capon, J. U. Farley, and S. Hoenig, “Determinants of financial performance: A meta-analysis,” Management Science, No. 36, pp. 1143-1159, October 1990.

[106]   N. Slack, S. Chambers, C. Harland, and R. Johnson, “Operations management,” 4th Edition, Pitman Publish-ing, London, 2003.

[107]   M. Wisniewski and M. Donnelly, “Measuring service quality in the public sector: The potential for SER- VQUAL,” Total Quality Management, No. 7, pp. 357-367, 1996.

[108]   MORI, “Public service reform: Measuring and under-standing customer satisfaction,” 2002, http://www.ipsos-mori.com/publications/rd/opsr.pdf.

[109]   Y. Ekinci, “An investigation of the determinants of cus-tomer satisfaction,” Tourism Analysis, No. 8, pp. 197- 203, 2004.

[110]   J. J. Cronin and S. A. Taylor, “Measuring service quality: A reexamination and extension,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 55-68, 1992.

[111]   E. Christou and M. Sigala, “Conceptualising the meas-urement of service quality and TQM performance for ho-tels: The HOSTQUAL model,” Acta Touristica, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 140-69, 2002.

[112]   R. Johnston and D. Lyth, “Implementing the integration of customer expectations and operational capabilities,” in S. Brown, E. Gummesson, B. Edvardsson, and B. Gus-tavsson, (Eds), “Service quality: Multidisciplinary and multinational perspectives,” Lexington Books, Lanham, MD, pp. 179-90, 1991.

[113]   M. Sigala, “Investigating the factors determining e-learn- ing effectiveness in tourism and hospitality education,” Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Education, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 11-21, 2004.

[114]   M. Sigala, “The ASP-Qual model: Measuring ASP ser-vice quality in Greece,” Managing Service Quality, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 103-14, 2004.

[115]   J. M. Carman, “Consumer perceptions of service quality: An assessment of the SERVQUAL dimensions,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 33-5, 1990.

[116]   R. C. Lewis and B. H. Booms, “The marketing aspect of service quality,” In L. Berry, G. Shostack, and G. Upah, (Eds), Emerging Perspective on Service Marketing, American Marketing Association, Chicago, IL, pp. 99- 107, 1983.

[117]   R. L. Oliver, “A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction judgments,” Journal of Marketing Research, No. 17, pp. 460-9, November 1980.

[118]   [V. Phala, “Accelerating service delivery through the use of mobile technology: M-government,” Service Delivery Review, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 82, 2007.

[119]   D. W. Jorgensen, M. S. Ho, and K. J. Stiroh, “Lessons from the US growth resurgence,” First International Conference on the Economic and Social Implications of Information Technology, Washington DC, January 27, 2003.

[120]   E. Brynjolfsson and L. M. Hitt, “The catalytic computer: Information technology, enterprise transformation, and business performance,” First International Conference on the Economic and Social Implications of Information Technology, Washington DC, January 27, 2003.

[121]   S. Basu, “E-government and developing countries: An overview,” International Review of Law Computers and Technology, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 109–132, March 2004.

[122]   [P. A. Mittal, M. Kumar, M. K. Mohania, M. Nair, N. Batra, P. Roy, A. Saronwala, and L. Yagnik, “A frame-work for e-governance solutions,” IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 48, No. 5/6, 2004.

[123]   R. Gonzalez, J. Gasco, and J. Llopis, “E-government success: Some principles from a Spanish case study,” Industrial Management and Data Systems, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Vol. 107, No. 6, pp. 845-861, 2007.