CN  Vol.8 No.2 , May 2016
Protection Strategies against Cascading Failure for Power Systems of Ring Network
Abstract: Power grid vulnerability is a key issue with large blackouts, causing power disruption for millions of people. The complexity of power grid, together with excessive number of components, makes it difficult to be modeled. Currently, researchers use complex networks to model and study the performance of power grids. In fact, power grids can be modeled into a complex network by making use of ring network topology, with substations and transmission lines denoted as nodes and edges, respectively. In this paper, three protection schemes are proposed and their effectiveness in protecting the power network under high and low-load attacks is studied. The proposed schemes, namely, Cascaded Load Cut-off (CLC), Cascaded Load Overflow (CLO) and Adaptive-Cascaded Load Overflow (A-CLO), improve the robustness of the power grids, i.e., decrease the value of critical tolerance. Simulation results show that CLC and CLO protection schemes are more effective in improving the robustness of networks than the A-CLO protection scheme. However, the CLC protection scheme is effective only at the expense that certain percentage of the network will have no power supply. Thus, results show that the CLO protection scheme dominates the other protection schemes, CLC and A-CLO, in terms of the robustness of the network, improved with the precise amount of load cut-off determined.
Cite this paper: Kumar, A. , Shwe, H. and Chong, P. (2016) Protection Strategies against Cascading Failure for Power Systems of Ring Network. Communications and Network, 8, 67-78. doi: 10.4236/cn.2016.82008.

[1]   (2012) Selected Information about the July 31 Blackout in India Affecting the Northern and Eastern Regions. Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC’12).

[2]   Dobson, I., Carreras, B.A., Lynch, V.E. and Newman, D.E. (2007) Complex Systems Analysis of Series of Blackouts: Cascading Failure, Critical Points, and Self-Organization. Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 17, 1-13.

[3]   Little, R.G. (2002) Controlling Cascading Failure: Understanding the Vulnerabilities of Interconnected Infrastructures. Journal of Urban Technology, 9, 109-123.

[4]   Dorogovtsev, S.N. and Mendes, J.F.F. (2003) Evolution of Networks: From Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[5]   Strogatz, S.H. (2001) Exploring Complex Networks. Nature, 410, 268-276.

[6]   Jacobson, V. (1988) Congestion Avoidance and Control. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 18, 314-329.

[7]   Guimera, R., Arenas, A., Diaz-Guilera, A. and Giralt, F. (2002) Dynamical Properties of Model Communication Networks. Physical Review, 66, 1-8.

[8]   Watts, D.J. (2002) A Simple Model of Global Cascades on Random Networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 5766-5771.

[9]   Kadloor, S. and Santhi, N. (2010) Understanding Cascading Failures in Power Grids. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 1-12.

[10]   Johal, H., Anaparthi, K. and Black, J. (2012) Demand Response as a Strategy to Support Grid Operation in Different Time Scales. Proceedings of the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE’12), Raleigh, 15-20 September 2012, 1461-1467.

[11]   Réka Albert, I.A. and Nakarado, G.L. (2004) Structural Vulnerability of the North American Power Grid. Physical Review, 69, 1-4.

[12]   Motter, A.E. and Lai, Y.-C. (2002) Cascade-Based Attacks on Complex Networks. Physical Review, 66, 1-4.

[13]   Huang, Z., Wang, C., Zhu, T.Y. and Nayak, A. (2015) Cascading Failures in Smart Grid: Joint Effect of Load Propagation and Interdependence. IEEE Access, 3, 2520-2530.

[14]   Cai, Y., Cao, Y.J., Li, Y., Huang, T. and Zhou, B. (2016) Cascading Failure Analysis Considering Interaction Between Power Grids and Communication Networks. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 7, 530-538.

[15]   Wang, J.-W. and Rong, L.-L. (2009) Cascade-Based Attack Vulnerability on the US Power Grid. Safety Science, 47, 1332-1336.

[16]   Wang, J.-W. and Rong, L.-L. (2011) Robustness of the Western United States Power Grid under Edge Attack Strategies due to Cascading Failures. Safety Science, 49, 807-812.

[17]   Wang, J. (2013) Robustness of Complex Networks with the Local Protection Strategy against Cascading Failures. Safety Science, 53, 219-225.

[18]   Yan, J., He, H.B. and Sun, Y. (2014) Integrated Security Analysis on Cascading Failure in Complex Networks. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 9, 451-463.

[19]   Barnes, K., Johnson, B. and Nickelson, R. (2004) Introduction to SCADA Protection and Vulnerabilities. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, United States.

[20]   Yang, X.M. and Jiang, J.L. (2008) Study on Power Supply of Ring Network of 10KV Distribution Network. Proceedings of the China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED’08), Guangzhou, 10-13 December 2008, 1-5.