JEP  Vol.7 No.6 , May 2016
Life-Cycle Analysis of Bio-Ethanol Fuel Emissions of Transportation Vehicles in Greater Houston Area

Study is conducted on the life cycle assessment of bio-ethanol used for transportation vehicles and their emissions. The emissions that are analyzed include greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, particulate matter with the size less than 10 and 2.5 microns. Furthermore, various blends of bio-ethanol and gasoline are studied to learn about the impacts of higher blend on emissions. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model software are used to simulate for emissions. The research analyzes two pathways of emissions: Well-to-Pump and Pump-to-Vehicle analyses. It is found that the fuel cell vehicles using 100% bio-ethanol have shown the most reduction in the amount of all the pollutants from the Pump-to-Vehicle emission analysis. The Well-to-Pump analysis shows that only greenhouse gases (GHGs) reduce with higher blends of bio-ethanol. All other pollutants VOC, CO, NOx, SOx, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions increase with the higher blending ratios. The Pump-to-Vehicle analysis shows that all the pollutant emissions reduce with the percentage increase of bio-ethanol in the fuel blends.

Cite this paper: Kommalapati, R. , Sheikh, S. , Du, H. and Huque, Z. (2016) Life-Cycle Analysis of Bio-Ethanol Fuel Emissions of Transportation Vehicles in Greater Houston Area. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7, 793-804. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.76072.

[1]   Poudenx, P. (2008) The Effect of Transportation Policies on Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission from Urban Passenger Transportation. Transportation Research Part A, 42, 901-909.

[2]   Jia, S., Peng, H., Liu, S. and Zhang, X. (2009) Review of Transportation and Energy Consumption Related Research. Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology, 9, 6-14.

[3]   Chapman, L. (2007) Transport and Climate Change: A Review. Journal of Transport Geography, 15, 354-367.

[4]   Colvile, R.N., Hutchinson, E.J., Mindell, J.S. and Warren, R.F. (2001) The Transport Sector as a Source of Air Pollution. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 1537-1565.

[5]   Wu, M., Wu, Y. and Wang, M. (2006) Energy and Emission Benefits of Alternative Transportation Liquid Fuels Derived from Swithgrass: A Fuel Life Cycle Assessment. Biotechnology Progress, 4, 1012-1024.

[6]   (2015) GREET Model Software. Energy System, Argonne National Laboratory.

[7]   Wang, M., Wu, Y. and Elgowainy, A. (2007) Operating Manual for GREET Version 1.7. Center for Transportation Research, Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory

[8]   Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) (2009) Table HM-71-Highway Statistics 2008-FHWA.

[9]   Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) (2002) Highway Statistics 2002—URBANIZED AREAS—2002—Table HM-71.

[10]   Lubertino, G., Gao, D., Smith, C., Slyke, C.V. and Whitworth, S. (2009) Texas Houston-Galveston Area Council. Transportation Development and Production of On-Road Mobile Source Reasonable Further Progress Emission Inventories for the Years 2002, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017, 2018, and 2019. Houston-Galveston Area Council, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

[11]   Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) (2009) 2008 CERR On-Road Mobile Source CERR Emissions Inventories for the HGB Area. Transportation Modeling Program.