Back
 AS  Vol.7 No.4 , April 2016
Optimizing Plant Spacing under the Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI)
Abstract: Optimum plant spacing is among key agronomic parameters that influence crop growth performance and crop yield. A study was conducted to investigate the optimum rice transplanting spacing under the Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI) practice in Tanzania. The study composed of five treatments of rice transplanting spacing namely 1) 15 cm × 15 cm (T1); 2) 20 cm × 20 cm (T2); 3) 25 cm × 25 cm (T3); 4) 30 cm × 30 cm (T4); and 5) 35 cm × 35 cm (T5). The experiment was set in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and transplanted with uniform age of 12 days old seedlings in all treatments. The rice variety tested was TXD 306 Super SARO which was recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture for flooded rice in central and eastern Tanzania. Data was collected throughout the two growing seasons (Masika and Vuli) of 2013 and 2014. Data collected include biomass at vegetative, flowering and harvesting stages, total number of tillers per hill, number of productive tillers per hill, number of grains per panicle and rice grain yield at the end of the season. Data was analyzed using SAS software version 9.1. Results have shown that transplanting spacing of 25 cm × 25 cm, 30 cm × 30 cm and 35 cm × 35 cm has significantly performed better than rice transplanted at 15 cm × 15 cm and 20 cm × 20 cm. For the higher performing treatments, 25 cm × 25 cm has performed much higher than the rest. It is therefore recommended that for rice variety TXD 306 Super SARO under SRI practice in areas with soil conditions similar to Mkindo area in Morogoro Region, the optimum transplanting spacing that gives maximum yield is 25 × 25 cm.
Cite this paper: Reuben, P. , Kahimba, F. , Katambara, Z. , Mahoo, H. , Mbungu, W. , Mhenga, F. , Nyarubamba, A. and Maugo, M. (2016) Optimizing Plant Spacing under the Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI). Agricultural Sciences, 7, 270-278. doi: 10.4236/as.2016.74026.
References

[1]   Dobermann, A. (2004) A Critical Assessment of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). Agricultural Systems, 79, 261-281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-521X(03)00087-8

[2]   Stoop, W.A., Uphoff, N. and Kassam, A. (2002) A Review of Agricultural Research Issues Raised by the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: Opportunities for improving Farming Systems for Resource-Poor Farmers. Agricultural Systems, 71, 249-274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-521X(01)00070-1

[3]   Uphoff, N., Kassam, A.H. and Harwood, R. (2011) SRI as a Methodology for Raising Crop and Water Productivity: Productive Adaptations in Rice Agronomy and Irrigation Water Management. Paddy and Water Environment, 9, 3-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10333-010-0224-4

[4]   Satyanarayana, A., Thiyagarajan, T.M. and Uphoff, N. (2007) Opportunities for Water Saving with Higher Yield from the System of Rice Intensification. Irrigation Science, 25, 99-115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00271-006-0038-8

[5]   Nyamai, M., Mati, B.M., Home, P.G., Odongo, B., Wanjogu, R. and Thuranira, E.G. (2012) Improving Land and Water Productivity in Basin Rice Cultivation in Kenya through System of Rice Intensification (SRI). Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 14, Manuscript No. 2094.

[6]   Katambara, Z., Kahimba, F., Mahoo, H., Mbungu, W., Mhenga, F., Reuben, P., Maugo, M. and Nyarubamba, M. (2013) Adopting the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Tanzania: A Review. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4, 369-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/as.2013.48053

[7]   Wu, W., Ma. B.L. and Uphoff, N. (2015) A Review of System of Rice Intensification in China. Plant and Soil, 393, 361-381.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2440-6

[8]   Chapagain, T., Riseman, A. and Yamaji, E. (2011) Assessment of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Conventional Practices under Organic and Inorganic Management in Japan. Rice Science, 18, 311-320.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1672-6308(12)60010-9

[9]   Debal, D., Lässig, J. and Kloft, M. (2012) A Critical Assessment of the Importance of Seedling Age in the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Eastern India. Experimental Agriculture, 48, 326-346.

[10]   Thakur, A.K., Rath, S., Roychowdhury, S. and Uphoff, N. (2010) Comparative Performance of Rice with System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Conventional Management Using Different Plant Spacings. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Sciences, 196, 146-159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2009.00406.x

[11]   Hasanuzzaman, M., Nahar, K., Roy, T.S., Rahman, M.L., Hossain, M.Z. and Ahmed, J.U. (2009) Tiller Dynamics and Dry Matter Production of Transplanted Rice as Affected by Plant Spacing and Number of Seedling per Hill. Academic Journal of Plant Sciences, 2, 162-168.

[12]   Menete, M.Z.L., Van Es, R.M.L., Brito, S.D., DeGloria, H.M. and Famba, S. (2008) Evaluation of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Component Practices and Their Synergies on Salt-Affected Soils. Field Crops Research, 109, 34-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2008.06.003

[13]   Bracebridge, C. (2006) Mkindo Forest Reserve: Forest Disturbance Report. Report for Tanzania Forest Conservation Group and Participatory Environmental Management Programme, Dar es Salaam.

[14]   Reuben, P., Katambara, Z., Kahimba, F., Mahoo, H., Mbungu, W., Mhenga, F., Nyarubamba, A. and Maugo, M. (2016) Influence of Transplanting Age on Paddy Yield under the System of Rice Intensification. Agricultural Sciences, 7, 154-163.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/as.2016.73015

[15]   Ginigaddara, G.A.S. and Ranamukhaarachchi, S.L. (2011) Study of Age of Seedlings at Transplanting on Growth Dynamics and Yield of Rice under Alternating Flooding and Suspension of Irrigation of Water Management. Recent Research in Science and Technology, 3, 76-88.

[16]   Krupnik, T.J., Shennan, C., Settle, W.H., Demont, M., Ndiaye, A. and Rodenburg, J. (2012) Improving Irrigated Rice Production in the Senegal River Valley through Experiential Learning and Innovation. Agricultural Systems, 109, 101-112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2012.01.008

 
 
Top