GEP  Vol.4 No.4 , April 2016
A Review of Literature on Residential Solid Fuel Burning, and Consequently the Implications of Meeting the European 2050 Low-Carbon Targets

This paper is intended to source literature, identifying the adverse impacts on human health, from the pollutants released from residential burning from both fossil fuel and biomass sources. The literature sourced was ascertained through the conduction of a systematic literature review. The author assessed peer-reviewed English language articles, which had been published within the last five years. The studies reviewed indicated a clear increase in the burning of residential solid fuels. The findings suggest that residential solid fuel combustion is occurring in developed countries, primarily as a secondary source of heating during the winter months. The study concluded that similarly to bituminous coal, the domestic burning of wood also had adverse effects on human health. The intentions of UK Climate Change Act 2008 are to achieve an 80% reduction by the year 2050 in the net carbon account from the 1990 baseline. It is recommended for countries to meet the European 2050 targets, long-term measures need to be adopted. This includes switching from residential solid fuel burning to heating methods such as oil and gas, which are necessary in improving overall air quality and public health.

Cite this paper: Rainey, K. , Vaganay, M. and MacIntyre, S. (2016) A Review of Literature on Residential Solid Fuel Burning, and Consequently the Implications of Meeting the European 2050 Low-Carbon Targets. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 4, 7-13. doi: 10.4236/gep.2016.44002.

[1]   European Environment Agency (2014) Air Quality in Europe—2014 Report.

[2]   Kliucininkas, L., Krugly, E., Stasiu-laitiene, I., Radziuniene, I., Prasauskas, T., Jonusas, A., Kauneliene, V. and Martuzevicius, D. (2014) Indoor-Outdoor Levels of Size Segregated Particulate Matter and Mono/Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons among Urban Areas Using Solid Fuels for Heating. Atmospheric Environment, 97, 83-93.

[3]   Kim, K., Jahan, S.A., Kabir, E. and Brown, R.J.C. (2013) A Review of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Their Human Health Effects. Environment Inter-national, 60, 71-80.

[4]   Happo, M.S., Uski, O., Jalava, P.I., Kelz, J., Brunner, T., Haku-linen, P., M?ki-Paakkanen, J., Kosma, V., Jokiniemi, J., Obernberger, I. and Hirvonen, M. (2013) Pulmonary Inflamma-tion and Tissue Damage in the Mouse Lung after Exposure to PM Samples from Biomass Heating Appliances of Old and Modern Technologies. Science of the Total Environment, 443, 256-266.

[5]   Peltier, R.E., Cromar, K.R., Ma, Y., Fan, Z.T. and Lippmann, M. (2011) Spatial and Seasonal Distribution of Aerosol Chemical Components in New York City: (2) Road Dust and Other Tracers of Traffic-Generated Air Pollution. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 21, 484-494.

[6]   Gon?alves, C., Alves, C. and Pio, C. (2012) Inventory of Fine Particulate Organic Compound Emissions from Residential Wood Combustion in Portugal. Atmospheric Environment, 50, 297-306.

[7]   Kortelainen, M., Jokiniemi, J., Nuutinen, I., Torvela, T., Lamberg, H., Karhunen, T., Tissari, J. and Sippula, O. (2015) Ash Behaviour and Emission Formation in a Small-Scale Reciprocating-Grate Combustion Reactor Operated with Wood Chips, Reed Canary Grass and Barley Straw. Fuel, 143, 80-88.

[8]   Schmidl, C., Luisser, M., Padouvas, E., Lasselsberger, L., Rzaca, M., Ramirez-Santa Cruz, C., Handler, M., Peng, G., Bauer, H. and Puxbaum, H. (2011) Particulate and Gaseous Emissions from Manually and Automatically Fired Small Scale Combustion Systems. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 7443-7454.

[9]   B?lling, A.K., Pagels, J., Yttri, K.E., Barregard, L., Sallsten, G., Schwarze, P.E. and Boman, C. (2009) Health Effects of Residential Wood Smoke Particles: The Importance of Com-bustion Conditions and Physicochemical Particle Properties. Part. Fibre Toxicol, 6, 29.

[10]   Kourtchev, I., Hellebust, S., Bell, J.M., O’Connor, I.P., Healy, R.M., Allanic, A., Healy, D., Wenger, J.C. and Sodeau, J.R. (2011) The Use of Polar Organic Compounds to Estimate the Contribution of Domestic Solid Fuel Combustion and Biogenic Sources to Ambient Levels of Organic Carbon and PM2.5 in Cork Harbour, Ireland. Science of the Total Environment, 409, 2143-2155.

[11]   Pietrogrande, M.C., Abbaszade, G., Schnelle-Kreis, J., Bacco, D., Mercuriali, M. and Zimmermann, R. (2011) Seasonal Variation and Source Estimation of Organic Compounds in Urban Aerosol of Augsburg, Germany. Environmental Pollution, 159, 1861-1868.

[12]   Saarikoski, S.K., Sillanp??, M.K., Saarnio, K.M., Hillamo, R.E., Pennanen, A.S. and Salonen, R.O. (2008) Impact of Biomass Combustion on Urban Fine Particulate Matter in Central and Northern Europe. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 191, 265-277.

[13]   Umlauf, G., Christoph, E.H., Eisenreich, S.J., Mariani, G., Paradi?, B. and Vives, I. (2010) Seasonality of PCDD/Fs in the Ambient Air of Malopolska Region, Southern Poland. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 17, 462- 469.

[14]   Alves, C., Nunes, T., Vicente, A., Gon?alves, C., Evtyugina, M., Marques, T., Pio, C. and Bate-Epey, F. (2014) Speciation of Organic Compounds in Aerosols from Urban Background Sites in the Winter Season. Atmospheric Research, 150, 57-68.

[15]   Sarigiannis, D.Α., Karakitsios, S.P., Zikopoulos, D., Nikolaki, S. and Kermenidou, M. (2015) Lung Cancer Risk from PAHs Emitted from Biomass Combustion. Environmental Research, 137, 147-156.

[16]   Callén, M.S., López, J.M., Iturmendi, A. and Mastral, A.M. (2013) Nature and Sources of Particle Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in the Atmospheric Environment of an Urban Area. Environmental Pollution, 183, 166-174.

[17]   Clancy, L., Goodman, P., Sinclair, H. and Dockery, D.W. (2002) Effect of Air-Pollution Control on Death Rates in Dublin, Ireland: An Intervention Study. The Lancet, 360, 1210-1214.

[18]   Reisen, F., Meyer, C.P.(. and Keywood, M.D. (2013) Impact of Biomass Burning Sources on Seasonal Aerosol Air Quality. Atmospheric Environment, 67, 437-447.

[19]   Nordin, E.Z., Uski, O., Nystr?m, R., Jalava, P., Eriksson, A.C., Genberg, J., Roldin, P., Bergvall, C., Westerholm, R., Jokiniemi, J., Pagels, J.H., Boman, C. and Hirvonen, M. (2015) Influence of Ozone Initiated Processing on the Toxicity of Aerosol Particles from Small Scale Wood Combustion. Atmospheric Environment, 102, 282-289.

[20]   Haluza, D., Kaiser, A., Moshammer, H., Flandorfer, C., Kundi, M. and Neuberger, M. (2012) Estimated Health Impact of a Shift from Light Fuel to Residential Wood-Burning in Upper Austria. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 22, 339-343.

[21]   Riddervold, I.S., B?nl?kke, J.H., Olin, A., Gr?nborg, T.K., Schlünssen, V., Skogstrand, K., Hougaard, D., Massling, A. and Sigsgaard, T. (2012) Effects of Wood Smoke Particles from Wood-Burning Stoves on the Respiratory Health of Atopic Humans. Part Fibre Toxicol, 9, 12.

[22]   IARC (2010) Some Non-Heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Some Related Exposures. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum, 92, 1-853.

[23]   WHO (2008) Outdoor Air Pollution Children’s Health and the Environment WHO Training Package for the Health Sector. World Health Organisation.

[24]   Perera, F.P., Tang, D., Wang, S., Vishnevetsky, J., Zhang, B., Diaz, D., Camann, D. and Rauh, V. (2012) Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Exposure and Child Behavior at Age 6-7 Years. Environ Health Perspect, 120, 921-926.

[25]   Jedrychowski, W.A., Perera, F.P., Majewska, R., Mrozek-Budzyn, D., Mroz, E., Roen, E.L., Sowa, A. and Jacek, R. (2015) Depressed Height Gain of Children Associated with Intrauterine Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Heavy Metals: The Cohort Prospective Study. Environmental Research, 136, 141-147.

[26]   Ghafghazi, S., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S., Bi, X. and Melin, S. (2011) Particulate Matter Emissions from Combustion of wood In District Heating Applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 3019-3028.

[27]   Williams, A., Jones, J.M., Ma, L. and Pourkashanian, M. (2012) Pollutants from the Combustion of Solid Biomass Fuels. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 38, 113-137.

[28]   Scott, A.J. and Scarrott, C. (2011) Impacts of Residential Heating Intervention Measures on Air Quality and Progress towards Targets in Christchurch and Timaru, New Zealand. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 2972-2980.

[29]   Piazzalunga, A., Anzano, M., Collina, E., Lasagni, M., Lollobrigida, F., Pannocchia, A., Fermo, P. and Pitea, D. (2013) Contribution of Wood Combustion to PAH and PCDD/F Concentrations in Two Urban Sites in Northern Italy. Journal of Aerosol Science, 56, 30-40.

[30]   Gilardoni, S., Vignati, E., Cavalli, F., Putaud, J.P., Larsen, B.R., Karl, M., Stenstroem, K., Genberg, J., Henne, S. and Dentener, F. (2011) Better Constraints on Sources of Carbonaceous Aerosols Using a Combined Super(14)C—Macro Tracer Analysis in a European Rural Background Site.

[31]   Brandt, C., Kunde, R., Dobmeier, B., Schnelle-Kreis, J., Orasche, J., Schmoeckel, G., Diemer, J., Zimmermann, R. and Gaderer, M. (2011) Ambient PM10 Concentrations from Wood Combustion—Emission Modeling and Dispersion Calculation for the City Area of Augsburg, Germany. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 3466-3474.

[32]   Fu, M., Kelly, J.A. and Clinch, J.P. (2014) Residential Solid Fuel Use: Modelling the Impacts and Policy Implications of Natural Resource Access, Temperature, Income, Gas Infrastructure and Government Regulation. Applied Geography, 52, 1-13.