Back
 JWARP  Vol.8 No.3 , March 2016
Hydrological Systems in the Greater Virunga Landscape: Water Quality around Mikeno Sector
Abstract: Monitoring of environmental parameters is one of the highest priorities in the evaluation of environmental status of water resources and in environmental protection policy. The main objectives are to understand and evaluate the water quantity and quality in order to provide water of appropriate quality to various water users. The water quantity was assessed by the measurement of runoff or discharge at specific river cross sections using floating method for surface water and bucket and stopwatch method for springs and boreholes. The quality of river water and spring was identified in terms of its physical, chemical, and biological parameters. The analyzed data were compared with standard values recommended by WHO. Macroinvertebrates were collected in the rivers using a plankton nets and 10 minutes of sampling. Identification was made at the laboratory of Malacology. Results revealed that the quality of water obtained from sampling points is generally good to use for different domestic purposes except the Idanta River and Rwembwe borehole, which need an appropriate treatment before use. All sampling points are located far from houses and latrines, which can contribute to fecal contamination. On the different sampling points, bathing and washing clothes were observed and could constitute the source of pollution of drinking water. In Idanta and Kamira Rivers animals used water for drinking while also people use this water for domestic and drinking. In the two sampling points high values of Escherichia coli were found. No pollutant-taxa tolerant were found in the two monitored rivers for macroinvertebrates. Since water quality and quantity remain a major challenge in rural areas, the government should provide safe water to the population around Mikeno sector after treatment using suitable techniques.
Cite this paper: Karume, K. , Bagalwa, M. , Yalire, M. , Kazi, K. , Bagula, E. , Bitariho, R. , Nahayo, D. , Kasangaki, A. and Byamukama, J. (2016) Hydrological Systems in the Greater Virunga Landscape: Water Quality around Mikeno Sector. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 382-396. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.83032.
References

[1]   Mwendera, E.J. (2006) Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RWSS) Coverage in Swaziland: Toward Achieving Millennium Development Goals. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 31, 681-689.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2006.08.040

[2]   Zhu, K., Zhang, L., Hart, W., Liu, M. and Chen, H. (2004) Quality Issues in Harvested Rainwater in Arid and Semi-Arid Loess Plateau of Northern China. Journal of Arid Environments, 57, 487-505.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-1963(03)00118-6

[3]   Sadeghi, G.H., Mohammadian, M., Nourani, M., Peyda, M. and Eslami, A. (2007) Microbiological Quality Assessment of Rural Drinking Water Supplies in Iran. Journal of Agriculture & Social Sciences, 3, 31-33.

[4]   Traichaiyaporn, S. and Chitmanat, C. (2008) Water Quality Monitoring in Upper Ping River, Thailand. Journal of Agriculture & Social Sciences, 4, 31-34.

[5]   Gamedze, K., Tevera, D.S. and Fadiran, A.O. (2012) Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 99-102.

[6]   Fewtrell, L., Prüss-üstün, A., Bos, R., Gore, F. and Bartram, J. (2007) Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Quantifying the Health Impact at National and Local Levels in Countries with Incomplete Water Supply and Sanitation Coverage. WHO, Geneva.

[7]   Prüss-üstün, A. and Corvalán, C. (2006) Preventing Disease through Health Environments. Towards an Estimate of the Environmental Burden of Disease. WHO, Geneva.

[8]   WHO (1997) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, Volume 3: Surveillance and Control of Community Water Supplies. 2nd Edition, WHO, Geneva.

[9]   Li, E.X. and Ling, B. (2006) Effect of Water Pollution on Human Health. Sanitary Engineering of China, 5, 3-5.

[10]   Yin, Y.R. and Deng, Z.L. (2006) Analysis on Relationship between Drinking Water and Health. Scientific and Technological Information of China, 219-221.

[11]   Ni, F., Liu, G., Ye, J., Ren, H. and Yang, S. (2009) ArcGIS-Based Rural Drinking Water Quality Health Risk Assessment. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 1, 351-361.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2009.15042

[12]   Haylamicheal, I.D. and Moges, A. (2012) Assessing Water Quality of Rural Water Supply Schemes as a Measure of Service Delivery Sustainability: A Case Study of Wondo Genet District, Southern Ethiopia. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6, 229-236.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJEST12.010

[13]   Urama, K.C. and Ozor, N. (2010) Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in Africa: The Role of Adaptation. Climate Adaptation, 29 p.

[14]   Stolberg, F., Borysova, O., Mitrofanov, I., Barannik, V. and Eghtesadi, P. (2003) Caspian Sea. GIWA Regional Assessment 23. Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA).

[15]   Andriuca, V. (2010) Assessment of the Ecological Situation and the State of the Drinking Water Quality in Rural Areas of the Dniester River Basin. Present Environment and Sustainable Development, 4, 57-68.

[16]   Bagalwa, M., Yalire, M., Balole, E. and Karume, K. (2014) A Preliminary Assessment of Physico Chemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Lake Edward and Majors Tributaries Rivers, Democratic Republic of Congo. Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences (SAJB), 2, 236-245.

[17]   Mbalassa, M., Bagalwa, M., Nshombo, M. and Kateyo, M. (2014) Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters in Relation with Fish Ecology in Ishasha River and Lake Edward, Albertine Rift Valley, East Africa. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3, 230-244.

[18]   Golterman, H.L., Clymo, R.S. and Ohnstad, M. (1978) Methods for Physical and Chemical Analysis of Fresh Waters. Blackwell, London, 213 p.

[19]   APHA (American Public Health Association) (1989) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th Edition, APHA, Washington DC, 1587 p.

[20]   Wetzel, R.G. and Likens, G.E. (2000) Limnological Analysis. Springer, Berlin, 429 p.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-3250-4

[21]   Olapande, O.J. and Omitoyin, B.O. (2012) Anthropogenic Pollution Impact on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Lake Kivu, Rwanda. Scholarly Peer Reviewed, 12, 6517-6536.

[22]   Olapande, O.J. (2011) Trace Metal Pollution and Physicochemical Characteristics of Lake Kivu, Rwanda. Global Journal of Environmental Research, 5, 56-64.

[23]   UNECE (1994) Standard Statistical Classification of Surface Freshwater Quality for the Maintenance of Aquatic Life. In: Readings in International Environment Statistics, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe: United Nations, New York and Geneva, 53-64.

[24]   FEPA (Federal Environmental Protection Agency) (1991) Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, Federal Environmental Protection Agency Regulation 1991 on Pollution Abatement in Industries and Facilities Generated Wastes. 78(42): 38 p.

[25]   WHO (1993) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. World Health Organization, Geneva, 489 p.

[26]   Podda, F., Zuddas, P., Minacci, A., Pepi, M. and Baldi, F. (2000) Heavy Metal Coprecipitation with Hydrozine [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] from Mine Waters Caused by Photosynthetic Micro-Organisms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 5092-5098.

[27]   Welz, B. (1985) Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. VCH, Weinheim and Deerfield Beach, 506 p.

[28]   APHA (American Public Health Association) (1995) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC.

[29]   Collins, C.H. and Lyne, M.P. (1976) Microbiological Methods. Butterworth and Co publishers Ltd., London, Boston, 524 p.

[30]   Bakare, A.A., Lateef, A., Amuda, O.S. and Afolabi, R.O. (2003) The Aquatic Toxicity and Characterization of Chemical and Microbiological Constituents of Water Samples from Oba River, Odo-oba, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, 5, 11-17.

[31]   Coyne, M.S. and Howell, J.M. (1994) The Faecal Coliform/Faecal Streptococci Ratio (FC/FS) and Water Quality in the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky. Soil Science News & Views, 15, 4.

[32]   SCA (Standing Committee of Analysts) (2002) The Microbiology of Drinking Water. Part 1-Water Quality and Public Health. Methods for the Examination of Waters and Associated Materials. Environment Agency.

[33]   Harrelson, C.C., Rawlins, C.L. and Potyondy, J.P. (1994) Stream Channel Reference Sites: An Illustrated Guide to Field Technique. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-245. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, 61 p.

[34]   Bartram, J. and Balance, R. (1996) Water Quality Monitoring: A Practical Guide to the Design of Freshwater Quality Studies and Monitoring Programmes. Chapman & Hall, London.

[35]   Azanga, E. (2013) Sediment and Nutrient Hotspot Areas Dynamics in Selected Micro-Catchment of the Lake Tanganyika Basin in Democratic Republic of Congo. Master Thesis, Makerere University, Kampala, 97 p.

[36]   Bagalwa, M., Zirirane, N., Pauls, S.U., Karume, K., Ngera, M., Bisimwa, M. and Mushagalusa, N. (2012) Aspects of the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Rivers in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Environmental Protection, 3, 1590-1595.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2012.311175

[37]   Karume, K. (2006) Biomass and Hydropower Potential and Demand in the Albertine Rift Region. PhD Thesis, Makerere University, Kampala.

[38]   Michaud, J.P. and Wierenga, M. (2005) Estimating Discharge and Stream Flows. A Guide for Sand and Gravel Operators. Ecology Publication Number 05-10-070, 37 p.

[39]   Olivier, L. and Scheiderman, M. (1956) Method for Estimation of the Density of Aquatic Snail Population. Experimental Parasitology, 5, 109-117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-4894(56)90008-X

[40]   Needham, J.G. and Needham, P.R. (1962) A Guide to the Study of Freshwater Biology. Holden Day, Inc, San Francisco.

[41]   Micha, J.C. and Noiset, J.L. (1982) Evaluation biologique de la pollution de ruisseaux et rivières par les macro-invertébrés aquatiques. Probio Revue, 5, 142 p.

[42]   Meyberck, M., Friedrich, G., Thomas, R. and Chapman, D. (1996) Rivers Water Quality Assessments: A Guide to the Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environment Monitoring. Chapman Edition, 2nd Edition, E & FN Spon, London, 59-126.

[43]   Hoko, Z. (2008) An Assessment of Quality of Water from Boreholes in Bindura District, Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 33, 824-828.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2008.06.024

[44]   WHO (2004) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. 3rd Edition, Vol. 1, Recommendations, World Health Organization, Geneva.

[45]   Environment Canada (1987) Canadian Water Quality Guidelines [with Updates]. Prepared by the Task Force on Water Quality Guidelines of the Canadian Council of Resource Ministers, Environment Canada, Ottawa.

[46]   Ali, S.S., Salam, A., Azeem, A., Shafique, M. and Khan, B.A. (2000) Studies on the Effect of Seasonal Variations on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Mixed Water from Rivers Ravi and Chenab at Union Site in Pakistan. Journal of Research (Science)—Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 2, 1-17.

[47]   Patil, N., Ahmed, A., Sureshbaba, H., Kottureshwar, N.M., Jayashree, M. and Nijalingappa, J. (2010) Study on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Ground Water of Gulbarga City (Karnataka). International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 1, 518-523

[48]   Adeyemo, O.K., Ayodeji, I.O. and Aiki-Raji, C.O. (2002) The Water Quality and Sanitary Conditions in a Major Abbatoir (Bodija) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Africa Journal of Biomedical Research. Ibadan Biomedical Communications Group, 1-2, 51-55.

[49]   EEC (European Economic Community) (1993) European Community Standards for Surface Waters Used for Portable Abstractions. Directive 76/464/EEC. EEC, Brussels.

[50]   Shetty, S., Tharavathy, N.C., Lobo, R.O. and Shafakatullah, N. (2013) Seasonal Variation in the Physico-Chemical Characteristics along the Upstream of Tungabhadra River, Western Ghats, India. International Journal of Plants, Animals and Environmental Sciences, 3, 242-246.

[51]   Fernandez, L.G. and Olalla, H.Y. (2000) Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Lead and Cadmium in Marine Protozoan Communities. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 47, 266-276.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/eesa.2000.1944

[52]   Ogoyi, D.O., Mwita, C.J., Nguu, E.K. and Shiundu, P.M. (2011) Determination of Heavy Metal Content in Water, Sediment and Microalgae from Lake Victoria, East Africa. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 4, 156-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874829501104010156

[53]   Linnik, P.M. and Zubenko, I.B. (2000) Role of Bottom Sediments in the Secondary Pollution of Aquatic Environments by Heavy Metal Compounds. Lakes and Reservoir: Research and Management, 5, 11-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1770.2000.00094.x

[54]   Omoigberale, M.O. and Ogbeibu, A.E. (2005) Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Oil Exploration and Production on the Osse River, Southern Nigeria, I. Heavy Metals. African Journal of Environmental Pollution and Health, 4, 27-32.

[55]   Mwegoha, W.J.S. and Kihampa, C. (2010) Heavy Metal Contamination in Agricultural Soils and Water in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4, 763-769.

[56]   Chandana, J., Priti, S. and Pratima, J. (2014) Evaluation of Physico-Chemical and Microbial Properties of Ground Water Recharged through Water Harvesting System in Gwalior, MP, India. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 4, 72-75.

[57]   Vernaux, J. and Tuffery, G. (1967) Une méthode zoologique pratique de détermination de la qualité biologique des eaux courantes. Indices biologiques. Annuaire des Sciences de l’Université de Besancon, (Zoologie), 3, 79-90.

 
 
Top