AAD  Vol.5 No.1 , March 2016
Psychophysiological Effects of Sideritis and Bacopa Extract and Three Combinations Thereof—A Quantitative EEG Study in Subjects Suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
Abstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is regarded as a transitional stage during the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Diagnosis of MCI can be obtained by the questionnaire “DemTect” in German speaking countries. Quantitative assessment has been successfully performed using psychometric testing concomitantly with quantitative EEG recording. The present investigation aimed at the possible treatment of MCI with two botanicals, namely extracts from Sideritis scardica (500 mg) or Bacopa monnieri (320 mg) and three combinations thereof using this method in order to find a new treatment. The performance of the d2-test, an arithmetic calculation test (CPT) and a memory-test revealed better performance for the d2-test only in the presence of Sideritis extract or the combinations with Bacopa extract. Quantitative EEG assessment during the different experimental conditions showed massive differences between both extracts. Whereas Sideritis extract and its combination with a low amount of Bacopa extract (160 mg) induced increases of spectral power in fronto-temporal brain areas, Bacopa and the combination of Sideritis with high amounts of Bacopa extract produced attenuation of all waves except for delta in fronto-temporal brain areas. These differences were also documented by quantitative EEG maps in comparison to Placebo. A different action of both extracts was confirmed by discriminant analysis, where Sideritis extract and its combination with low Bacopa grouped together quite at distance to Bacopa and the combination of Sideritis with high Bacopa. A combination of Sideritis extract with a low amount of Bacopa should be tested with daily repetitive dosing for at least 4 weeks as a consequence.
Cite this paper: Dimpfel, W. , Schombert, L. and Biller, A. (2016) Psychophysiological Effects of Sideritis and Bacopa Extract and Three Combinations Thereof—A Quantitative EEG Study in Subjects Suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Advances in Alzheimer's Disease, 5, 1-22. doi: 10.4236/aad.2016.51001.

[1]   Rossini, P.M., Del Percio, C., Pasqualetti, P., Cassetta, E., Binetti, G., Dal Forno, G., Ferreri, F., Frisoni, G., Chiovenda, P., Miniussi, C., Tombini, M., Vecchio, F. and Babiloni, C. (2006) Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease Is Predicted by Sources and Coherence of Brain Electroncephalography Rhythms. Neuroscience, 143, 793-803.

[2]   Roh, J.H., Park, M.H., Lee, D.H., Han, C., Jo, S.A., Yang, K.S. and Jung, K.Y. (2011) Region and Frequency Specific Changes of Spectral Power in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122, 2169-2176.

[3]   Fitzpatrick-Lewis, D., Warren, R., Mu, A., Sherifali, D. and Raina, P. (2015) Treatment for Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. CMAJ Open, 3, E419-E427.

[4]   Cooper, C., Li, R. and Lyketsos, G. (2013) Treatment of Mild Cognitive Impairment: Systematic Review. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 203, 255-264.

[5]   Oulhaj, A., Jernerén, F., Refsum, H. and de Jager, C.A. (2016) Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status Enhances the Prevention of Cognitive Decline by B Vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 50, 547-557.

[6]   Patent MCI 2010: Walbroel, B., Feistel, B., Pahnke, J.: Patentschrift 2515922B1—Herbal Extracts for Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

[7]   Calabrese, C., Gregory, W.L., Leo, M., Kraemer, D., Bone, K. and Oken, B. (2008) Effects of a Standardized Bacopa monneri Extract on Cognitive Performance, Anxiety, and Depression in the Elderly: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 14, 707-713.

[8]   Stough, C., Singh, H. and Zangara, A. (2015) Mechanisms, Efficacy, and Safety of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) for Cognitive and Brain Enhancement. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2015, Article ID: 717605.

[9]   Simpson, T., Pase, M. and Stough, C. (2015) Bacopa monnieri as an Antioxidant Therapy to Reduce Oxidative Stress in the Aging Brain. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2015, Article ID: 615384.

[10]   Kessler, J., Calabrese, P., Kalbe, E. and Berger., F. (2000) DemTect. Ein neues Screening-Verfahren zur Unterstuützung der Demenzdiagnostik. Psycho, 26, 343-347.

[11]   Kalbe, E., Kessler, J., Calabrese, P., Smith, R., Passmore, A.P., Brand, M. and Bullock, R. (2004) DemTect: A New, Sensitive Cognitive Screening Test to Support the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 136-143.

[12]   Dimpfel, W. (2014) Neurophysiological Biomarker of Mild Cognitive Impairment. Advances in Alzheimer’s Disease, 3, 64-67.

[13]   Harmony, T., Fernandez-Bouzas, A., Marosi, E., Fernandez, T., Bernal, J., Rodriguez, M., Reyes, A., Silva, J., Alonso, M. and Casian, G. (1993) Correlation between Computed Tomography and Voltage and Current Source Density Spectral Parameters in Patients with Brain Lesions. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 87, 196-205.

[14]   Dimpfel, W., Hofmann, H.C., Prohaska, A., Schober, F. and Schellenberg, R. (1996) Source Density Analysis of Functional Topographical EEG: Monitoring of Cognitive Drug Action. European Journal of Medical Research, 1, 283-290.

[15]   Dimpfel, W., Kler, A., Kriesl, E., Lehnfeld, R. and Keplinger-Dimpfel, I.K. (2007) Source Density Analysis of the Human EEG after Ingestion of a Drink Containing Decaffeinated Extract of Green Tea Enriched with L-Theanine and Theogallin. Nutritional Neuroscience, 10, 169-180.

[16]   Brickenkamp, R. (1994): d2-Test (Aufmerksamkeits-Belastungs-Test). Hogrefe Verlag, Göttingen.

[17]   Düker, H. and Lienert, G.A. (1965) Der Konzentrationsleistungstest (KLT). Hofgrefe Verlag, Göttingen.

[18]   Zheng, L., Jiang, Z. and Yu, E. (2007) Alpha Spectral Power and Coherence in the Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment during a Three-Level Working Task. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B, 8, 584-592.

[19]   Jensen, O., Gelfand, J., Kounios, J. and Lismann, J.E. (2002) Oscillations in the Alpha2 Band Increase with Memory Load during Retention in a Short Term Memory Task. Cerebral Cortex, 12, 877-882.

[20]   Klimesch, W. (1996) Memory Processes, Brain Oscillations and EEG Synchronization. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 24, 61-100.

[21]   Morgan, A. and Stevens, J. (2010) Does Bacopa monnieri Improve Memory Performance in Older Persons? Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16: 753- 759.

[22]   Zanotta, D., Puricelli, S. and Bonoldi, G. (2014) Cognitive Effects of a Dietary Supplement Made from Extract of Bacopa monnieri, Astaxanthin, Phosphatidylserin, and Vitamine E in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Non-Comparative, Exploratory Clinical Study. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 225-230.