JWARP  Vol.8 No.3 , March 2016
Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Groundwater in the Precambrian Rocks, South Eastern Desert, Egypt
Abstract: This work refers to the characterization of the hydrochemistry of the southern part of the Eastern Desert in Egypt, on the basis of physico-chemical properties of groundwater occurring in the fractured Precambrian rocks inland and in sedimentary formations on the coastline of the Red Sea. Thirty-five groundwater samples have been collected from the study area for hydrochemical investigations to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. Several methods were used to interpret the hydrochemical data, i.e. graphical methods, principal components analysis, ions exchanges indices and saturation indices of various minerals. The results show that the major ionic relationships are Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ and Cl&#45 > > HCO3&#45 and that groundwater chemical characteristics are controlled by natural geochemical processes but also, to a lesser extent, by anthropogenic activities. Natural minerals dissolution, ion exchanges and evaporation play a prominent role in the ion enrichment of groundwater. A comparison of groundwater quality in relation to WHO water quality standards proved that most of the water samples are not totally suitable for drinking water purpose.
Cite this paper: Embaby, A. , Razack, M. , Lecoz, M. and Porel, G. (2016) Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Groundwater in the Precambrian Rocks, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 293-310. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.83025.

[1]   Andre, L., Franceschi, M., Pouchan, P. and Atteia, O. (2005) Using Geochemical Data and Modelling to Enhance the Understanding of Groundwater Flow in a Regional Deep Aquifer, Aquitaine Basin, South-West of France. Journal of Hydrology, 305, 40-62.

[2]   Rashed, M., Idris, Y. and Shaban, M. (2006) Integrative Approach of GIS and Remote Sensing to Represent the Hydrogeological and Hydrochemical Conditions of Wadi Qena-Egypt. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Water Resources & Arid Environment, Saudi Arabia, November 2006, 1-10.

[3]   Abd El-Moneim, A.A. (2005) Overview of the Geomorphological and Hydrogeological Characteristics of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Hydrogeology Journal, 13, 416-425.

[4]   Said, R. (1990) The Geology of Egypt. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam/Brookfield, 734 p.

[5]   El Ramly, I.M. (1972) Final Report on Geomorphology, Hydrology Planning for Groundwater Resources and Reclamation in Lake Nasser Region and Its Environs. Lake Nasser Center and Desert Institute, Cairo, 603 p. (Unpublished Report)

[6]   Abdel Kader, A.A. (2001) Application of Some Geophysical and Hydrogeological Techniques for Groundwater Resources Investigation in Selected Areas between Idfu-Marsa Alam, Eastern Desert, Egypt. M.Sc. Thesis, Assiut University, Assiut, 172 p. (Unpublished)

[7]   Mohamed, A.A. (2004) Geographic Environment and Development in Marsa Alam Area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. M.Sc. Thesis, Cairo University, Giza. (Unpublished)

[8]   Saleh, M.F. (1993) Hydrogeological and Hydrochemical Studies on Some Localities in South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis, Suez Canal University, Ismailia. (Unpublished)

[9]   Tahoon, M.A. (2011) Hydrogeochemical and Environmental Study in the Area between Marsa Alam and Baranes, Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis, South Valley University, Qena, 215 p. (Unpublished)

[10]   Embaby, A.I., Razack, M. and Porel, G. (2015) Geophysical Investigations to Highlight Hard Rocks Aquifers Structure in the South Eastern Desert, Egypt. 6th International Conference on Water Resources and Sustainable Development, ENSH, Blida, Algeria, 2015, Abstract 4 p.

[11]   Domenico, P.A. and Schwartz, F.W. (1990) Physical and Chemical Hydrology. Wiley, New York

[12]   Swan, A.R.H. and Sandilands, M. (1995) Introduction to Geological Data Analysis. Blackwell, Oxford.

[13]   Gouaidia, L., et al. (2011) évaluation de la vulnérabilitéd’une nappe en milieu semi-arideetcomparaison des méthodesappliquées: Cas de la nappe de Meskiana (Est Algérien). [Vulnerability Assessment of Groundwater in Semi-Arid and Comparison of Methods: Meskiana Groundwater (Eastern Algeria).] Revue Sécheresse, 22, 35-42. (In French)

[14]   Dawdy, D.R. and Feth, J.H. (1967) Application of Factor Analysis in Study of Chemistry of Groundwater Quality, Mojaveriver Valley, California. Water Resources Research, 3, 505-510.

[15]   Ashley, R.P. and Lloyd, J.W. (1978) An Example of the Use of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis in Ground Water Chemistry Interpretation. Journal of Hydrology, 39, 355-364.

[16]   Lawrence, F.W. and Upchurch, S.B. (1983) Identification of Recharge Areas Using Factor Analysis. Ground Water, 20, 680-687.

[17]   Usunoff, E.J. and Guzman, A.G. (1989) Multivariate Analysis in Hydrochemistry. An Example of the Use of Factor and Correspondence Analysis. Ground Water, 17, 27-34.

[18]   Razack, M. and Dazy, J. (1990) Hydrochemical Characterization of Groundwater Mixing in Sedimentary and Metamorphic Reservoirs with Combined Use of Piper’s Principle and Factor Analysis. Journal of Hydrology, 114, 371-393.

[19]   Abderamane, H., Razack, M. and Vassolo, S. (2012) Hydrogeochemical and Isotopic Characterization of the Groundwater in the Chari-Baguirmi Depression. Republic of Tchad. Environmental Earth Sciences, 69, 2337-2350.

[20]   Hussein, M.T. (2004) Hydrochemical Evaluation of Groundwater in the Blue Nile Basin, Eastern Sudan, Using Conventional and Multivariate Techniques. Hydrogeology Journal, 12, 144-158.

[21]   Yitbarek, A., Razack, M., Ayenew, T., Zemedagegnehu, E. and Azagegn, T. (2012) Hydrogeological and Hydrochemical Framework of Upper Awash River Basin, Ethiopia: With Special Emphasis on Interbasins Groundwater Transfer between Blue Nile and Awash Rivers. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 65, 46-60.

[22]   Taqveem, A.K. (2015) Groundwater Quality Evaluation Using Multivariate Methods, in Parts of Ganga Sot Sub-Basin, Ganga Basin, India. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 769-780.

[23]   Harman, H.H. (1960) Modern Factor Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

[24]   Piper, A.M. (1944) A Graphic Procedure in the Geochemical Interpretation of Water Analyses. Transactions—American Geophysical Union, 25, 914-923.

[25]   Simler, R. (2009) Diagrammes Software.

[26]   Gupta, S., Mahato, A., Roy, P., Datta, J.K. and Saha, R.N. (2008) Geochemistry of Groundwater, Burdwan District, West Bengal, India. Environmental Geology, 53, 1271-1282.

[27]   Sujatha, D. and Reddy, R.B. (2003) Quality Characterization of Groundwater in the South-Eastern Part of the Ranja Reddy District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Geology, 44, 579-586.

[28]   Aboubaker, M., Jalludin, M. and Razack, M. (2013) Hydrochemistry Study of a Volcano-Sedimentary Aquifer Using Major Ion and Environmental Isotope Data. Dalha Basalts Aquifer, Southwest of Republic of Djibouti. Environmental Earth Sciences, 70, 3335-3349.

[29]   Moussa, A., Zouari, K. and Oueslati, N. (2008) Geochemical Study of Groundwater Mineralization in the Grombalia Shallow Aquifer, North-Eastern Tunisia: Implication of Irrigation and Industrial Waste Water Accounting. Environmental Geology, 58, 555-566.

[30]   Kuldip, S., Hundal, H. and Dhanwinder, S. (2011) Geochemistry and Assessment of Hydrogeochemical Processes in Groundwater in the Southern Part of Bathinda District of Punjab, Northwest India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 64, 1823-1833.

[31]   Yuce, G. (2007) A Geochemical Study of the Groundwater in the Misli Basin and Environmental Implications. Environmental Geology, 51, 857-868.

[32]   Jalali, M. (2009) Geochemistry Characterization of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area of Razan, Hamadan, Iran. Environmental Geology, 56, 1479-1488.

[33]   Nandimandalam, J.R. (2011) Evaluation of Hydrogeochemical Processes in the Pleistocene Aquifers of Middle Ganga Plain, Uttar Pradesh, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 65, 1291-1308.

[34]   Diaw, M., Faye, S., Stichler, W. and Maloszewski, P. (2012) Isotopic and Geochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Senegal River Delta Aquifer: Implication of Recharge and Flow Regime. Environmental Earth Sciences, 66, 1011-1020.

[35]   Singh, S., Raju, N.J. and Ramakrishna, C. (2015) Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Domestic and Irrigation Use in Parts of the Chandauli-Varanasi Region, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 572-587.

[36]   Fetter, C.W. (1994) Applied Hydrogeology. Prentice Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, 691.

[37]   Usho, R., Kur, H., Jessica, S., Ian, E., Michael, N.F., Stephen, J.S. and Andrea, L.H. (2005) The Use of 36Cl and Chloride/Bromide Ratios in Discerning Salinity Sources and Fluid Mixing Patterns: A Case Study at Saratoga Springs. Chemical Geology, 222, 94-111.

[38]   Davis, S.N., Whittemore, D.O. and Fabryke-Martin, J. (1998) Uses of Chloride/Bromide Ratios in Studies of Potable Water. Ground Water, 36, 338-351.

[39]   Davis, S.N., Cecil, L., Zreda, M. and Moysey, S. (2001) Chlorine-36, Bromide, and the Origin of Spring Water. Chemical Geology, 179, 3-16.

[40]   Petrides, B. and Cartwright, I. (2006) The Hydrogeology and Hydrogeochemistry of the Barwon Downs Graben Aquifer, Southwestern Victoria, Australia. Hydrogeology Journal, 14, 809-826.

[41]   Herczeg, A.L., Torgersen, T., Chivas, A.R. and Habermehl, M.A. (1991) Geochemistry of Ground Waters from the Great Artesian Basin, Australia. Journal of Hydrology, 126, 225-245.

[42]   Cartwright, I., Weaver, T.R., Fulton, S., Nichol, C., Reid, M. and Cheng, X. (2003) Hydrogeochemical and Isotopic Constraints on the Origins of Dryland Salinity, Murray Basin, Victoria, Australia. Applied Geochemistry, 19, 1233-1254.

[43]   Edmunds, W.M., Kay, R.L.F., Miles, D.L. and Cook, J.M. (1987) The Origin of Saline Groundwaters in the Carnmenellis Granite, Cornwall (UK): Further Evidence from Minor and Trace Elements. In: Fritz, P. and Frape, S.K., Eds., Saline Water and Gases in Crystalline Rocks, Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 33, Geological Association of Canada, St. John’s, 127-143.

[44]   Datta, P.S. and Tyagi, S.K. (1996) Major Ion Chemistry of Groundwater in Delhi Area: Chemical Weathering Processes and Groundwater Regime. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 47, 179-188.

[45]   Rajmohan, N. and Elango, L. (2004) Identification and Evolution of Hydrogeochemical Processes in the Groundwater Environment in an Area of the Palar and Cheyyar River Basins, Southern India. Environmental Geology, 46, 47-61.

[46]   Cerling, T.E., Pederson, B.L. and Damm, K.L.V. (1989) Sodium-Calcium Ion Exchange in the Weathering of Shales: Implications for Global Weathering Budgets. Geology, 17, 552-554.<0552:SCIEIT>2.3.CO;2

[47]   Fisher, R.S. and Mulican III, W.F. (1997) Hydrochemical Evolution of Sodium-Sulfate and Sodium-Chloride Groundwater beneath the Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Trans-Pecos, Rexas, USA. Hydrogeology Journal, 10, 455-474.

[48]   Schoeller, H. (1977) Geochemistry of Groundwater. In: Brown, R.H., Konoplyantsev, A.A., Ineson, J. and Kovalensky, V.S., Eds., Groundwater Studies—An International Guide for Research and Practice, UNESCO, Paris, 1-18.

[49]   Parkhurst, D.L. and Appelo, C.A.J. (1999) User’s Guide to PHREEQC (Version 2)—A Computer Program for Speciation, Batch-Reaction, One-Dimensional Transport, and Inverse Geochemical Calculations. United States Geological Survey, Water Resources Investigations Report 99-4259, Washington DC, 326.

[50]   Hounslow, A. (1995) Water Quality Data: Analysis and Interpretation. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[51]   Plummer, L. and Back, W. (1980) The Mass Balance Approach: Application to Interpreting the Chemical Evolution of Hydrologic Systems. American Journal of Science, 280, 130-142.

[52]   Appelo, C.A.J. and Postma, D. (1993) Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution. Balkema, Rotterdam.

[53]   Yidana, S., Ophori, D. and Yakubo, B. (2008) Hydrochemical Evaluation of the Voltaian System. The Afram Plains area, Ghana. Journal of Environmental Management, 88, 697-707.

[54]   Jankowski, J. and Acworth, R.I. (1997) Impact of Debris-Flow Deposits on Hydrogeochemical Process and the Development of Dry Land Salinity in the Yass River Catchment, New South Wales, Australia. Hydrogeology Journal, 5, 71-88.

[55]   De Fulvio, S. and Olori, L. (1976) Definitions and Classification of Naturally Soft and Naturally Hard Waters. In: Amavis, R., Hunter, W.J. and Smeets, J.G.P.M., Eds., Hardness of Drinking Water and Public Health: Proceedings of the European Scientific Colloquium, Luxembourg 1975, Pergamon Press, New York, 95.

[56]   World Health Organization (2008) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. 2nd Edition, WHO, Geneva.