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 AiM  Vol.6 No.3 , March 2016
Review: Gram Negative Bacteria in Brewing
Abstract: Gram negative aerobic bacteria such as Acetic Acid Bacteria, which include Acetobacter and Gluconobacter, have historically caused significant problems to brewers. Although incidences of spoilage have recently reduced as a result of improvements in beer packaging, these bacteria are still a concern in dispense systems in pub breweries, public houses and cask conditioned beers. Gram negative facultative bacteria of the genus Zymomonas can spoil primed cask conditioned beer and cider. There is a wide range of Enterobacteraeceace which are found within brewery environments and they serve as indicator microorganisms for hygiene and sanitation. Gram negative strictly anaerobic bacteria such as Pectinatus and Megasphaera have recently emerged as a significant threat due to the improvement in reduction of oxygen levels in beer and an increase in production of unpasteurised beer. Pectinatus and Megasphaera are sensitive to routine cleaning agents used in breweries, but they can survive and proliferate in biofilms eventually causing spoilage of beer. This review focuses on Gram negative aerobic, facultative anaerobic and strictly anaerobic brewery related spoilage bacteria.
Cite this paper: Ashtavinayak, P. and Elizabeth, H. (2016) Review: Gram Negative Bacteria in Brewing. Advances in Microbiology, 6, 195-209. doi: 10.4236/aim.2016.63020.
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