There has been increasing
concern regarding the cosmetic aspects of skin in recent years. Computational
simulation can be useful in understanding the mechanism underlying skin
formation. The bottom of the epidermis is called the basal layer and is very undulation.
In this study, we focus on the basal layer formation. We created a particle
model, which forms an undulation basal layer and regenerates the basal layer
formation by numerical simulation. At first, two-dimensional basal layer formation without epidermal
turnover was simulated. The results showed film shape changes and the
stability, as a layer in the process of long-time with an increase and decrease
of basal cells. Next, the model was applied to three-dimensional basal layer
formation with epidermal turnover. As the structure of the basal layer was
deformed, the upper structure of the epidermis comprising the cells divided from
the basal layer also became irregular. The simulation results accurately
represented and reproduced the three-dimensional basal
layer formation and epidermis turnover process.
Cite this paper
Nagayama, K. , Kurihara, T. , Amano, Y. and Tanahashi, M. (2016) Particle Simulation of Skin Basal Layer Formation. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines
, 33-37. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2016.43006
 Querleux, B. (2014) Computational Biophysics of the Skin. Pan Stanford Publishing.
 Sütterlin, T., Huber, S., Dickhaus, H. and Grabe, N. (2009) Modeling Multi-Cellular Behavior in Epidermal Tissue Homeostasis via Finite State Machines in Multi-Agent Systems. Bioinformatics, 25, 2057-2063.
 Hirashima, T., Hosokawa, Y., Iino, T. and Nagayama, M. (2013) On Fundamental Cellular Processes for Emergence of Collective Epithelial Movement. Biology Open, 2, 600-666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.20134523
 Adra, S., Sun, T., MacNeil, S., Holcombe, M. and Smallwood, R. (2010) Development of a Three Dimensional Multiscale Computational Model of the Human Epidermis. Open Journal PLoS ONE, 5, e8511.
 Nagayama, K., Nitta, J. and Miura, I. (2009) Numerical Analysis on Angiogenesis in Cancer Using a Particle Model. Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Japan, 58, 321-324.
 Hashiguchi, S. and Nagayama, K. (2011) Construction of a Hair Formation Analysis Method Using the Particle Model, 2011 Bioengineering Conference, 23th Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Japan, 355-356.
 Nagayama, K., Matsuoka, S., Morisaki, N. and Taguchi, H. (2015) 3D Numerical Simulation of Hair Formation Process Using a Particle Model. Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine.
 Uehara, T., Nagayama, K., Amano, Y. and Tanahashi, M. (2013) Numerical Simulation of Epidermis Formation Using Particle Model. The Second BMIRC International Symposium on Frontiers in Computational Systems Biology and Bioengineering, Japan, 30 January 2013.
 Amano, Y., Uehara, T., Tanahashi, M. and Nagayama, K. (2012) An Epidermal Turnover Model Predicts Undulation Skin Tone with Aging. SY01.01ICBS (World Congress on the International Society for Biophysics and Imaging of the Skin), Copenhagen, 29 November 2012.
 Nagayama, K., Uehara, T., Amano, Y. and Tanahashi, M. (2015) 3D Numerical Simulation of Epidermis Turnover Process Using a Particle Model. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jbm.2015.33007
 Shimizu, H.S. (2011) Textbook of Modern Dermatology. Nakayama-shoten Co. 38 , Japan.
 Clayton, E., Doupe, P.D., Klein, M.A., Winton, J.D., Simons, D.B. and Jones, H.P. (2007) A Single Type of Progenitor Cell Maintains Normal Epidermis. Nature, 446, 185-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05574
 Jones, H.P., Simons, D.B. and Watt, M.F. (2007) Sic Transit Gloria: Farewell to the Epidermal Transit Amplifying Cell? Cell Stem Cell Review, 1, 371-381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2007.09.014