IJCM  Vol.7 No.3 , March 2016
Parental Occupational Exposure and Risk of Acute Leukemia in Children: A Tunisian Population-Based Case-Control Study
Abstract: Background: In recent decades, the incidence of children’s hematological malignancies has been increasing worldwide including Tunisia. Their severity is reflected in the importance of the medical, social and economic impact. This increase remains fully unexplained, and the involvement of genetic, environmental and occupational factors is strongly suspected. Materials and methods: Our study was a cross-sectional survey of the type case-control conducted in the University Hospital of Farhat Hached of Sousse during the period ranging between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, and which included children with acute leukemia compared to children unharmed by neoplastic disease. Cases and controls were matched by age and gender. Our objective was to describe the socio-occupational characteristics of the parents of children with acute leukemia and to identify potential occupational factors implicated in the genesis of acute leukemia. Results: The number of acute leukemia cases in the Hematology Service and day hospital of the University Hospital of Farhat Hached during the study period was 66 cases divided into in 40 boys and 26 girls with a sex ratio of 1.53. Our cases and controls were matched by age and gender. The risk of incidence of leukemia in children from smoking fathers was higher (p = 0.02, OR = 2.24, IC = [1.11 - 4.52]). The risk of incidence of leukemia in children from alcoholic fathers was higher with p = 0.009, OR = 3.9; CI = [1.33 - 11.39]. After adjusting different variables, the difference persisted significantly with pa = 0.03 and ORa = 3.5, ICa = [1.09 - 11.6]. 25.7% of cases had a family history of blood disease and neoplasia, whereas no control presented that. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.006, OR = 1.46, IC = [1.38 - 1.56]). The parental occupational exposures associated to the occurrence of acute leukemia in children were pesticides with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.03, OR = 2.94, IC = [1.06 - 8.13]). This difference persisted after adjustment with different variables pa = 0.01, ORa 3.75; ICa = [1.27 - 11.03]. This difference had become significant after adjustment with the different variables pa = 0.03, ORa = 2.67, ICa = [1.06 - 6.7]. Conclusion: Our results showed some support for a positive association between childhood acute leukemia risk and parental occupational exposure to pesticides and cement. Additionally, acute leukemia risk among children might be increased with parental alcohol consumption.
Cite this paper: Kalboussi, H. , Youssef, Y. , Bougmiza, I. , Aloui, F. , Aloui, A. , Boughattas, W. , Maoua, M. , Brahem, A. , Chatti, S. , Maalel, O. , Debbabi, F. , Khlif, A. and Mrizak, N. (2016) Parental Occupational Exposure and Risk of Acute Leukemia in Children: A Tunisian Population-Based Case-Control Study. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 7, 193-203. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.73020.

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