OJCE  Vol.6 No.2 , March 2016
Optimum Design of Tied Back Retaining Wall
Abstract: This paper presents an optimization algorithm for the design of tied back retaining wall which is comprised of the same three basic elements: stem, toe and heel, where the stem is hinged to the base and tied to the heel by multiple tie rods at intervals along the wall. The aim of this study is to find the values of design variables for this suggested type of tied back retaining walls which minimize the cost function subjected to constraints of the problem. The optimum design of such structure is conducted by using one of the nontraditional optimization methods, genetic algorithm (GA). The formulation of the problem is based on the elastic analysis and the ultimate strength method of design as per ACI-318-2011 code. The built-in genetic algorithm optimtool of Matlab program is utilized to optimize the cost function of the wall. The cost of concrete, reinforcing steel, tie steel, formwork, excavation, and backfilling works are included. The considered design variables are the geometric dimensions and the amounts of reinforcement for the base slab and stem slab, as well as the amount of tie steel. The developed program is utilized to perform an extensive parametric study regarding the height of wall, backfill soil properties, and materials properties including concrete, reinforcing steel, and tie steel. The backfill properties are represented by a pressure coefficient, which is a function of the unit weight and the angle of internal friction. Average expressions are calculated for the total cost and optimum dimensions as ratios of the wall height H2 which may be useful for the practical design of walls.
Cite this paper: Jasim, N. and Al-Yaqoobi, A. (2016) Optimum Design of Tied Back Retaining Wall. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 6, 139-155. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2016.62013.

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