Tacoli, C. (1998) Bridging the Divide Rural-Urban Interactions and Livelihoods Gatekeeper Series No 77, IIED United Kingdom.
 MoFED (2002) Development and Poverty Profile of Ethiopia Welfare Monitoring Unit, Addis Ababa.
 MoFED (2006) Ethiopia: PASDEP. Addis Ababa
 Demeke, E. (1998) Rural-Urban Linkages in East and North Shewa Zones. MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
 Yamane, Taro (1967) Statistics an Introductory Analysis. 2nd Edition, New York, Harper and Row.
 Fan S., et al. (2005) Rural and Urban Dynamics and Poverty. Evidence from China and India IFRI Washington.
 Douglass, M. (1998) A Regional Network Strategy for Reciprocal Rural-Urban Linkages. An Agenda for Policy Research with Reference to Indonesia Third World Planning Review, 23.
 Douglass, M. (1999) Rural-Urban Integration and Regional Economic Resilience: Strategies for the Rural-Urban Transition in North East Thailand, Bangkok, Thailand.
 Eshetu Teklu (2007) Rural-Urban Linkage under Pastoral and Non-Pastoral Farming System: The Case of Fentale and Minjar-Shenkora Woreda. MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
 Ellis and Harris (2004) New Thinking about Urban and Rural Development. Guild Ford.
 Seraj, M. (2005) Livelihood Strategies and Their Implications Rural-Urban Linkages: The Case of Wolenkomi Town and Surrounding Rural Kebeles. MA Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
 Egziabher, T.G. (2005) Rural Urban Linkages in Ethiopia: The Need to Bridge the Divide. Proceeding of the 3rd International Policy Workshop in Regional and Local Development Studies, Addis Ababa, 21-33.
 UN/FIG (2004) Urban-Rural Interrelationship for Sustainable Development. Markech Declaration FIG Publication No. 33, Marrakech.
 UNDP (2000) Rural-Urban Linkages: An Emerging Policy Priority. Bureau of Development Policy, New York.
 Von Braun, J. (2007) Rural-Urban Linkages for Growth, Employment, and Poverty Reduction. International Conference on Ethiopian Economy, Addis Ababa, 7-9 June 2007, 1-21.
 Ellis, F. and Biggs, S. (2001) Evolving Themes in Rural Development 1950s-2000s. Overseas Development Institue, Oxford, Development Policy Review, 19, 437-448.
 ILRI, International Livestock Research Institute (2005) Analysis of Cotton Marketing Chains: The Case of Metema Woreda, North Gondar Zone, Amhara National Regional State. MA Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya.
 CSA (2006) Statistical Abstract. Addis Ababa.
 CSA (2007) Statistical Abstract. Addis Ababa.
 WoARD, (Woreda Agriculture and Rural Development Office) (2009&2011) Annual Report of Metema Woreda. Metema.