JEP  Vol.7 No.4 , March 2016
Water Quality Characterisation and Restoration Measures of University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus (UNMC) Lake

Nutrient enrichment has been identified as the major cause of University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus (UNMC) Lake’s water quality degradation. This study critically examines the nature, source and delivery of nutrients into the lake and observes that uncontrolled anthropogenic activities along the catchment area are the major sources. The chemical analyses of the water samples drawn from different sampling points were carried out in the laboratory and the total phosphorus readings were in the range of 20 to 55.7 μg/L with the inflow 1 recording the highest level. The chlorophyll a concentrations in the lake water were between 39 to 65 μg/L which exceeded Malaysian water quality standard. However, the silicate and nitrate levels were found to be in lower concentrations. Dissolved oxygen and pH readings obtained through in situ measurements in the lake water showed that there was oxygen depletion in the water during the night while it increased during the day, also the lake was acidic in the night and became alkaline in the day. All the findings were integrated to draw realistic restoration goals for the lake.

Cite this paper: Ogueri, D. and Gumsuri, M. (2016) Water Quality Characterisation and Restoration Measures of University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus (UNMC) Lake. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7, 481-489. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.74042.

[1]   Amparo, M. and Ernesto, J. (2000) On the Environmental Role of Urban Lakes in Mexico City. Urban Ecosystems, 4, 145-166.

[2]   Rabiatul, A.N., Sabarinah, S.A. and Azni, Z.A. (2012) Adaptive Outdoor Thermal Comfort at an Urban Park for the Benefit of the Present and Future Community. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 68, 865-878.

[3]   United States Environmental Protection Agency (1973) Measures for the Restoration and Enhancement of Quality of Freshwater Lakes.

[4]   Ashraf, M.A., Maah, M.J. and Yusoff, J. (2010) Water Quality Characterization of Varsity Lake, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. E-Journal of Chemistry, 7, S245-S254.

[5]   Hilt, S., Gross, E.M., Hupfer, M., Morschield, H., Mahlmann, J., Melzer, A., Poltz, J, Sandrock, S., Scharf, E., Schneider, S. and Weyer, K. (2006) Restoration of Submerged Vegetation in Shallow Eutrophic Lakes—A Guideline and State of the Art in Germany. Limnologica, 36, 155-171.

[6]   Urban, N.R., Apul, D.S. and Auer, M.T. (2004) Community Respiration Rates in Lake Superior. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 30, 230-244.

[7]   Jones, R. (2011) Oxygen—The Most Important Water Quality Parameter? Water Column, 23, 1-6.

[8]   Ochumba, P.B.O. (1990) Massive Fish Kills Within Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Hydrobiologia, 208, 93-99.

[9]   Carlson, R.E. and Simpson, J. (1996) A Coordinator’s Guide to Volunteer Lake Monitoring Methods. North American Lake Management Society, 96 p.

[10]   Stanley, C.D., Clarke, R.A., McNeal, B.L. and MacLeod, B.W. (2003) Relationship of Chlorophyll a Concentration to Seasonal Water Quality in Lake Manatee, Florida.

[11]   Bachmann, R.W., Hoyer, M.V. and Canfield, D.E. (2003) Predicting the Frequencies of High Chlorophyll Levels in Florida Lakes from Average Chlorophyll or Nutrient Data. Lake and Reservoir Management, 19, 229-241.

[12]   Murphy, S. (2007) General Information on Phosphorus. City of Boulder/USGS Water Quality Monitoring (Online).

[13]   Duethmann, D., Anthony, S., Carvalho, L. and Spears, B. (2009) A Model-Based Assessment of Non-Compliance of Phosphorus Standards for Lakes in England and Wales. International Journal of River Basin Management, 7, 197-207.

[14]   Baldwin, D.S., Whittington, J. and Oliver, R. (2003) Temporal Variability of Dissolved P Speciation in a Eutrophic Reservoir—Implications for Predicting Algal Growth. Water Research, 37, 4595-4598.

[15]   United States Environmental Protection Agency (2014) (Online).

[16]   Tallberg, P. (2000) Silicon and Its Impacts on Phosphorus in Eutrophic Freshwater Lakes. Academic Dissertation in Limnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki.

[17]   Nurmberg, G.K. (2007) Low-Nitrate-Days (LND), a Potential Indicator of Cyanobacteria Blooms in a Eutrophic Hard Water Reservoir. Journal of Water Quality Resources, 48, 269-283.

[18]   Osmon, D. (2008). An Overview of Shallow Lakes Ecology & Management Techniques. The Lake Connection.

[19]   Maulan, S. (2013) Putrajaya Wetland, Malaysia. Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Putra Malaysia, Serdang.