JACEN  Vol.5 No.1 , February 2016
Phosphate Sorption in Water by Several Cationic Polymer Flocculants
Although inorganic phosphate is an essential plant nutrient, elevated levels in surface waters lead to adverse effects in the environment. These effects are attributed to runoff from rain or irrigation events that may cause the sorbed phosphate to be transported from the application sites and to move into neighboring watersheds. Increased phosphate concentration in watersheds may lead to a variety of environmental problems including increased algal blooms, bacterial contamination, and in some cases eutrophication. To overcome these effects, polymer flocculants have been shown to reduce the phosphate concentration in water by removing suspended solids and thereby removing the phosphate sorbed to the solids. The purpose of this study is to determine the amount, if any, of phosphate removed by several commercial polymers. The polymers chosen include the polyacrylamides Magnifloc 494C, Magnifloc 985N and Poly (diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (Poly (DADMAC)). Using these polymers, it is discovered that the positive charge density of the polymers affects the amount of phosphate removed from solution with Poly (DADMAC) (having 100% positive charge density) removing 40% of the phosphate from a solution containing 10 ppm phosphate.
Cite this paper: Goebel, T. , Lascano, R. and Davis, T. (2016) Phosphate Sorption in Water by Several Cationic Polymer Flocculants. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 5, 45-51. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2016.51005.

[1]   Correll, D.L. (1998) The Role of Phosphorus in the Eutrophication of Receiving Waters: A Review. Journal of Environmental Quality, 27, 261-266.

[2]   Kugimiya, A. and Takei, H. (2008) Selective Recovery of Phosphate from River Water Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers. Analytical Letters, 41, 302-311.

[3]   Livingstone, D.A. and Fleischer, M. (1963) Data of Geochemistry. US Government Printing Office.

[4]   Maguire, R.O., Sims, J.T. and Coale, F.J. (2000) Phosphorus Solubility in Biosolids-Amended Farm Soils in the Mid- Atlantic Region of the USA. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29, 1225-1233.

[5]   Pote, D.H., Daniel, T.C., Moore, P.A., Nichols, D.J., Sharpley, A.N. and Edwards, D.R. (1996) Relating Extractable Soil Phosphorus to Phosphorus Losses in Runoff. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60, 855-859.

[6]   Bolto, B. and Gregory, J. (2007) Organic Polyelectrolytes in Water Treatment. Water Research, 41, 2301-2324.

[7]   Goebel, T.S., McInnes, K.J., Senseman, S.A., Lascano, R.J., Marchand, L.S. and Davis, T.A. (2011) Modifying Polymer Flocculants for the Removal of Inorganic Phosphate from Water. Tetrahedron Letters, 52, 5241-5244.

[8]   Kugimiya, A. and Takei, H. (2008) Selectivity and Recovery Performance of Phosphate-Selective Molecularly Imprinted Polymer. Analytica Chimica Acta, 606, 252-256.

[9]   Muljadi, D., Posner, A.M. and Quirk, J.P. (1966) The Mechanism of Phosphate Adsorption by Kaolinite, Gibbsite, and Pseudoboehmite. Journal of Soil Science, 17, 212-228.

[10]   Oguz, E., Gürses, A. and Canpolat, N. (2003) Removal of Phosphate from Wastewaters. Cement and Concrete Research, 33, 1109-1112.

[11]   Patel, J. and Sudhakar, P. (2001) Phosphate Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Mango Seed Powder. Journal of Industrial Pollution Control, 17, 213-218.

[12]   Kawamura, S. (1976) Considerations on Improving Flocculation (PDF). Journal-American Water Works Association, 68, 328-336.

[13]   Violante, A. and Pigna, M. (2002) Competitive Sorption of Arsenate and Phosphate on Different Clay Minerals and Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66, 1788-1796.

[14]   Gregory, J. (1973) Rates of Flocculation of Latex Particles by Cationic Polymers. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 42, 448-456.

[15]   Kasper, D.R. (1971) Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of the Flocculation of Charged Particles in Aqueous Solutions by Polyelectrolytes of Opposite Charge, California Institute of Technology.

[16]   Broughton, A., Pratt, S. and Shilton, A. (2008) Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal for High-Strength Wastewater With a Low rbCOD:P Ratio. Bioresource Technology, 99, 1236-1241.