Back
 Health  Vol.8 No.4 , February 2016
Relationships among Psychosocial Correlates and Stages of Change in a German-Chinese Sample
Abstract: Promoting Health Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA) behavior is an important undertaking in Germany as well as in China. In order to create successful interventions in different nations, knowledge about the relevant psychosocial correlates that may encourage successful progression through the behavior change process is necessary. Therefore, the relationships of selected psychosocial correlates of physical activity with stages of change were examined in a German-Chinese sample. In total, 2071 adults (865 Germans, 1206 Chinese) completed a questionnaire. The theoretical framework used was the FIT-model, which consists of the following stages of change: not considering, considering, preparing, exploring, fluctuating and maintaining. All data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA. Significant main effects for the stages of change on all psychosocial correlates were found. Significant interactions between stages and nations emerged for all correlates except for social support, although these results revealed small effect sizes. To progress within the stages of inactivity, interventions should focus on outcome expectations, barriers, social support and affective attitudes. The successful initiation of physical activity depends on considerations of barriers, maintenance self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation and affective attitudes. These same correlates plus social support are relevant for long-term adherence to physical activity. In Germany, perceived barriers and emotional aspects of physical activity appear to be important for initiating and maintaining regular physical activity. Furthermore, for long-term adherence to physical activity, Germans—in contrast to Chinese adults—may not necessarily benefit from social support; however they could benefit from learning how to strengthen their physical activity outcome expectations.
Cite this paper: Strobl, H. , Duan, Y. , Tittlbach, S. and Brehm, W. (2016) Relationships among Psychosocial Correlates and Stages of Change in a German-Chinese Sample. Health, 8, 353-362. doi: 10.4236/health.2016.84037.
References

[1]   Bouchard, C., Blair, S.N. and Haskell, W.L. (2007) Physical Activity and Health. Human Kinetics, Champaign.

[2]   WHO (2010) Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[3]   Krug, S., Jordan, S. and Lampert, T. (2012) Physical Activity: What Are the Patterns among Germans? Bundesgesundheitsblatt, 1, 6-7.

[4]   Chen, X.R., Jiang, Y., Wang, L.M., Li, Y.C., Zhang, M., et al. (2012). Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors among Chinese Adults in 2010. Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, 46, 399-403.

[5]   Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C. and Norcross, J.C. (1992) In Search of How People Change: Applications to Addictive Behaviours. American Psychologist, 47, 1102-1114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.9.1102

[6]   Schwarzer, R. (2008) Modelling Health Behaviour Change: How to Predict and Modify the Adoption and Maintenance of Health Behaviours. Applied Psychology, 57, 1-29.

[7]   Duan, Y.P., Brehm, W., Strobl, H., Tittlbach, S., Huang, Z.J. and Si, G.Y. (2013) Steps to and Correlates of Health Enhancing Physical Activity in Adulthood. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 11, 63-77.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesf.2013.07.001

[8]   Biddle, S.J.H., Brehm, W., Verheijden, M.V. and Hopman-Rock, M. (2012) Population Physical Activity Behaviour Change: A Review for the European College of Sport Science. European Journal of Sport Science, 12, 367-383.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2011.635700

[9]   Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J.P. and Schwarzer, R. (2005) Stage-specific Adoption and Maintenance of Physical Activity: Testing a Three-Stage Model. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 585-603.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2004.11.002

[10]   Fuchs, R. (2001) Entwick-lungsstadien des Sporttreibens [Evolutional States of Physical Activity Behaviour]. Sportwissenschaft, 31, 255-281.

[11]   Brehm, W., Wagner, P., Sygusch, R., Hahn, U. and Janke, A. (2005) Health Promotion by Means of Health Sport. A Framework and a Controlled Intervention Study with Sedentary Adults. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 15, 13-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2003.00369.x

[12]   Sallis, J.F. and Owen, N. (2003) Physical Activity and Behavioral Medicine. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

[13]   Trost, S.G., Owen, N., Bauman, A.E., Sallis, J.F. and Brown, W. (2002) Correlates of Adult’s Participation in Physical Activity: Review and Update. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 1996-2001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200212000-00020

[14]   Rhodes, R.E. and Pfaeffli, L.A. (2010) Mediators of Physical Activity Behaviour Change among Adult Non-Clinical Populations: A Review Update. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 37.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-7-37

[15]   Brehm, W. and Pahmeier, I. (2006) Kompetenz- und Konsequenzerwartungen [Competence and Outcome Expectations]. In: Bos, K. and Brehm, W., Eds., Handbuch Gesundheitssport, Hofmann, Schorndorf, 346-356.

[16]   Williams, D.M., Anderson, E.S. and Winett, R.A. (2005) A Review of the Outcome Expectancy Construct in Physical Activity Research. Annals of Behavioural Medicine, 29, 70-79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15324796abm2901_10

[17]   Ajzen, I. (1991) The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

[18]   Biddle, S.J.H. and Mutrie, N. (2008) Psychology of Physical Activity. Routledge, London.

[19]   Sheeran, P. (2002) Intention—Behavior Relations: A Conceptual and Empirical Review. European Review of Social Psychology, 12, 1-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14792772143000003

[20]   de Bourdeaudhuij, I. and Sallis, J. (2002) Relative Contribution of Psychosocial Variables to the Explanation of Physical Activity in Three Population-Based Adult Samples. Preventive Medicine, 34, 279-288.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.2001.0979

[21]   Sallis, J.F., Hovell, M.F., Hofstetter, C.R. and Barrington, E. (1992) Explanation of Vigorous Physical Activity during Two Years Using Social Learning Variables. Social Science and Medicine, 34, 5-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(92)90063-V

[22]   Rodgers, W.M., Hall, C.R., Blanchard, C.M., McAuley, E. and Munroe, K.J. (2002) Task and Scheduling Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Exercise Behaviour. Psychology and Health, 17, 405-416.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0887044022000004902

[23]   Teixera, P.J., Going, S.B., Houtkooper, L.B., Cussler, E.C., Metcalfe, L.L., et al. (2006) Exercise Motivation, Eating, and Body Image Variables as Predictor of Weight Control. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38, 179-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000180906.10445.8d

[24]   Ryan, R.M. and Deci, E.L. (2000) Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

[25]   Kiviniemi, M.T., Voss-Humke, A.M. and Seifert, A.L. (2007) How Do I Feel about the Behaviour? The Interplay of Affective Associations with Behaviours and Cognitive Beliefs as Influence on Physical Activity Behaviour. Health Psychology, 26, 152-158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.26.2.152

[26]   Eagly, A. and Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Harcourt Brac, Fort Worth.

[27]   Conner, M., Rhodes, R.E., Morris, B., McEachan, R. and Lawton, R. (2011) Changing Exercise through Targeting Affective or Cognitive Attitudes. Psychology and Health, 26, 133-149.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2011.531570

[28]   Duan, Y. (2006) Stage Models of Physical Activity Behaviour and Their Application to Chinese Adults. Dissertation, University Bayreuth, Bayreuth.

[29]   Triandis, H.C. (2001) Individualism-Collectivism and Personality. Journal of Personality, 69, 907-924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.696169

[30]   van de Vijver, F. and Hambleton, R.K. (1996) Translating Tests: Some Practical Guidelines. European Psychologist, 1, 89-99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.1.2.89

[31]   Brehm, W., Duan, Y., Mair, T., Strobl, H. and Tittlbach, S. (2010) Korperlich-sportliche Aktivitat als Gesund-heitsverhalten. Das FIT-Stufen-Modell [Physical Activity as Health Behaviour. The FIT-Stage-Model]. Bayreuther Beitrage zur Sportwissenschaft, 12, University Bayreuth, Bayreuth.

[32]   Duan, Y.P., Huang, Z., Si, G., Wei, X. and Brehm, W. (2010) Physical Activity as Health Behavior. The FIT-Stage-Model. Bayreuther Beitrage zur Sportwissenschaft, 13, University Bayreuth, Bayreuth. (In Chinese)

[33]   Reed, G.R., Velicer, W.F., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S. and Marcus, B.H. (1997) What Makes a Good Staging Algorithm: Examples from Regular Exercise. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 57-66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-12.1.57

[34]   Woll, A. (1996) Gesundheitsforderung in der Gemeinde—Eineempirische Untersuchungzum Zusammenhang von sportlicher Aktivitat, Fitness und Gesundheitbei Personenimmittleren und spaten Erwachsenenalter [Health Promotion in the Community—An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity, Fitness and Health in Middle-Aged and Older Adults]. LinguaMed, NeuIsenburg.

[35]   Brehm, W. and Eberhardt, J. (1995) Drop-out und BindungimFitneß-Studio [Drop-Out and Adherence to Fitness Centers]. Sportwissenschaft, 25, 174-186.

[36]   Sallis, J.F., Grossman, R.M., Pinski, R.B., Patterson, T.L. and Nader, P.R. (1987) The Development of Scales to Measure Social Support for Diet and Exercise Behaviors. Preventive Medicine, 16, 825-836.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435(87)90022-3

[37]   Seelig, H. and Fuchs, R. (2006) Messung der sport-und bewegungsbezogenen Selbstkonkordanz [Measurement of Intrinsic Motivation in Sport and Physical Activity]. Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie, 13, 121-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1026/1612-5010.13.4.121

[38]   Sutton, S. (2000) Interpreting Cross-Sectional Data on Stages of Change. Psychology and Health, 15, 163-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870440008400298

[39]   Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences. 2nd Edition, Erlbaum, Hillsdale.

[40]   Lippke, S. and Plotnikoff, R.C. (2006) Stages of Change in Physical Exercise: A Test of Stage Discrimination and Non-Linearity. American Journal of Health Behavior, 30, 290-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.30.3.7

[41]   Sniehotta, F.F., Scholz, U. and Schwarzer, R. (2006) Action Plans and Coping Plans for Physical Exercise: A Longitudinal Intervention Study in Cardiac Rehabilitation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 23-37.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/135910705X43804

 
 
Top