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 AJIBM  Vol.6 No.2 , February 2016
Reimaging Ethiopia through Destination Branding
Abstract: As the name of a country is negatively seen due to certain unpleasant incidents, re-imaging is obviously important and Ethiopia is affected by early derogatory histories which force the modern readers and viewers conception to be shaped by stories of wars and natural disasters including famine crisis that highly affect the destination brands especially the re-imaging effort. On this regard, Ethiopia was analyzed from the context of the tourists and some concerned organization so as to identify the possibility of re-imaging the country by using destination branding practices. To meet the goal, the study used mixed research approach and samples of 368 respondents were selected randomly to fill the questionnaires and out of it, 316 of them were collected and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics accordingly to test the hypothesis and reach the conclusions. The output reflects the destination marketing facts and insights in general, and recommendations are provided on how to re-image Ethiopia through destination branding which can be possible using branding techniques that could bring significant changes over stereotypes developed because of incidents that happen in the past.
Cite this paper: Girma, M. (2016) Reimaging Ethiopia through Destination Branding. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 6, 205-219. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2016.62019.
References

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http://www.mikroekonomia.net/system/publication_files/490/original/2.pdf?1314971018

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[6]   Dinnie, K. (2008) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

[7]   Morgan, N. and Pritchard, A. (1999) Tourism Promotion and Power: Creating Images, Creating Identities. Wiley, Chichester.

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[9]   Roderick Yeoman, I., Durie, A., McMahon-Beattie, U. and Palmer, A. (2005) Capturing the Essence of a Brand from Its History: The Case of Scottish Tourism Marketing. The Journal of Brand Management, 13, 134-147.
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[13]   Gibbons, A. (2007) The First Human: The Race to Discover our Earliest Ancestor. Anchor Books, New York.

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[16]   Marcus, H. (1994) A History of Ethiopia. University of California Press, Berkeley.

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[18]   Pankhurst, R. (2005) Historic Images of Ethiopia. Shama Books, Addis Ababa.

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[21]   Schwab, K. and Sala-i-Martin, X., Eds. (2011) The Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012. World Economic Forum, Geneva.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J073v21n02_08

[24]   Skinner, H. (2008) The Emergence and Development of Place Marketing’s Confused Identity. Journal of Marketing Management, 24, 915-928.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1362/026725708X381966

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[32]   Keller, K.L. (1998) Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.

[33]   Aaker, D.A. (1996) Building Strong Brands. The Free Press, New York.

[34]   Cai, A. (2002) Cooperative Branding for Rural Destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 29, 720-742.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00080-9

[35]   Florek, M., Insch, A. and Gnoth, J. (2006) City Council Websites as a Means of Place Brand Identity Communication. Place Branding, 2, 276-296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.6000036

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[37]   Baloglu, S. and Mangaloglu, M. (2001) Tourism Destination Images of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Italy as Perceived by US-Based Tour Operators and Travel Agents. Tourism Management, 22, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00030-3

[38]   Baloglu, S. and McCleary, K. (1999) A Model of Destination Image Formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26, 868-897.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00030-4

[39]   Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y. and Uysal, M. (2007) Destination Image and Destination Personality. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1, 62-81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17506180710729619

[40]   Mackay, K.J. and Fesenmaier, D.R. (2000) An Exploration of Cross-Cultural Destination Image Assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 38, 417-423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004728750003800411

[41]   Stern, E. and Krakover, S. (1993) The Formation of Composite Urban Image. Geographical Analysis, 25, 130-146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.1993.tb00285.x

[42]   Uysal, M., Chen, J. and Williams, D. (2000) Increasing State Market Share through a Regional Positioning. Tourism Management, 21, 89-96.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00082-5

[43]   Martin, I.M. and Eroglu, S. (1993) Measuring a Multi-Dimensional Construct: Country Image. Journal of Business Research, 28, 191-210.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(93)90047-S

[44]   Whetten, D.A. and Mackey, A. (2002) A Social Actor Conception of Organizational Identity and Its Implications for the Study of Organizational Reputation. Business & Society, 41, 393-414.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0007650302238775

[45]   Russel, J.A., Ward, L.M. and Pratt, G. (1981) Affective Quality Attributed to Environments: A Factor Analytic Study. Environment and Behavior, 13, 259-288.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916581133001

[46]   Echtner, C.M. and Ritchie, J.R.B. (1993) The Measurement of Destination Image: An Empirical Assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 31, 3-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004728759303100402

[47]   Quelch, J. and Jocz, K. (2005) Positioning the Nation-State. Place Branding, 1, 229-237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.5990024

[48]   Morgan, N. and Pritchard, A. (2004) Meeting the Destination Branding Challenge. In: Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R., Eds., Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 59-78.

[49]   Ethiopian Culture and Tourism Minister Quarterly Report on Number of Tourist Arrival (2011).

[50]   Sekaran, U. (2009) Research Method for Business: A Skill Building Approach. 4th Edition, Wiley India, New Delhi.

[51]   Addis Ababa Culture and Tourism Report (2011) Unpublished Document of the Organization.

[52]   Dinnie, K. (2008) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 126.

[53]   Anholt, S. (2006) Competitive Identity: The New Brand Management for Nations, Cities and Regions. Palgrave Macmillan, London.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230627727

[54]   Kotler, P. and Gertner, D. (2004) Country as Brand, Product and Beyond: A Place Marketing and Brand Management Perspective. In: Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R., Eds., Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition, 2nd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 40-56.

[55]   Field, A. (2005) Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. 2nd Edition, Sage, London.

[56]   Hair, J., Money, A., Page, M. and Samouel, P. (2007) Research Methods for Business. Routledge, London.

[57]   Pallant, J. (2010) SPSS Survival Manual. 4th Edition, Open University Press, Buckingham.

[58]   Dinnie, K. (2008) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 72.

[59]   Dinnie, K. (2008) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 228.

[60]   Grundey, D., Tolub, B. and Brukiene, J. (2006) Country Image as a Marketing Tool for Fostering Innovation and Entrepreneurship.
http://www.mikroekonomia.net/system/publication_files/490/original/2.pdf?1314971018

[61]   Avraham, E. and Ketter, E. (2008) Media Strategies for Marketing Places in Crisis Improving the Image of Cities, Countries and Tourist Destinations. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

[62]   Fan, Y. (2009) Branding the Nation: Towards a Better Understanding. Brunel Business School, Brunel University Uxbridge, London.

[63]   Qu, H., Kim, L.H. and Im, H.H. (2011) A Model of Destination Branding: Integrating the Concepts of the Branding and Destination Image. Tourism Management, 32, 465-476.

[64]   Wilkin-Armbrister, E. (2008) Brand Nevis—The Role of the Financial Service Sector. In: Dinnie, K. (2008) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, p. 97-101 as sited in Lee, Kyung Mi (2009) Nation Branding and Sustainable Competitiveness of Nations. Enscheda, the Netherlands.

[65]   Dinnie, K. (2008) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

[66]   Morgan, N. and Pritchard, A. (1999) Tourism Promotion and Power: Creating Images, Creating Identities. Wiley, Chichester.

[67]   Haile, G. (1993) Ethiopic Literature. In African Zion: The Sacred Art of Ethiopia. Roderick, Grierson.

[68]   Roderick Yeoman, I., Durie, A., McMahon-Beattie, U. and Palmer, A. (2005) Capturing the Essence of a Brand from Its History: The Case of Scottish Tourism Marketing. The Journal of Brand Management, 13, 134-147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540253

[69]   Del Boca, A. (1985) Italiani in Africa Orientale: La conquista dell’Impero. Laterza, Roma.

[70]   Henze, P.B. (2000) Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, London.

[71]   Markakis, J. and Ayele, N. (1978) Class and Revolution in Ethiopia. Shama Books, Addis Ababa.

[72]   Gibbons, A. (2007) The First Human: The Race to Discover our Earliest Ancestor. Anchor Books, New York.

[73]   Johanson, D. and Wong, K. (2009) Lucy’s Legacy: The Quest for Human Origins. Three Rivers Press, New York.

[74]   Bahru, Z. (2001) A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855-1974. 2nd Edition, James Currey, Oxford.

[75]   Marcus, H. (1994) A History of Ethiopia. University of California Press, Berkeley.

[76]   Pankhurst, R. (2001) The Ethiopians: A History (Peoples of Africa). New Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken.

[77]   Pankhurst, R. (2005) Historic Images of Ethiopia. Shama Books, Addis Ababa.

[78]   Briggs, P. (1998) Guide to Ethiopia. Bradt, London.

[79]   Akilu, A. (1997) A Glimpse of Ethiopia.

[80]   Schwab, K. and Sala-i-Martin, X., Eds. (2011) The Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012. World Economic Forum, Geneva.

[81]   Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 16 June 2009. (Ezega.com).

[82]   Gertner, R.K., Berger, K.A. and Gertner, D. (2007) Country-dot-com: Marketing and Branding Destinations Online. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 21, 105-116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J073v21n02_08

[83]   Skinner, H. (2008) The Emergence and Development of Place Marketing’s Confused Identity. Journal of Marketing Management, 24, 915-928.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1362/026725708X381966

[84]   O’donovan, V., Beauchamp, G. and Peach, R. (1998) Intersatellite Communications Systems. US Patent No. 5825325.

[85]   Florek, M. (2005) The Country Brand as a New Challenge for Poland. Place Branding, 1, 205-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.5990021

[86]   Morrison, A. and Anderson, D. (2002) Destination Branding.
http://www.macvb.org/intranet/prese nation/DestinationBrandingLOzarks6-10-02.ppt

[87]   Morgan, N. and Pritchard, A. (2002) Contextualizing Destination Branding. In: Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R., Eds., Destination Branding, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

[88]   Aaker, D.A. (1991) Managing Brand Equity. The Free Press, New York.

[89]   Fontaine, F. (year) Stakeholder Collaboration in the Tourism Planning of a World Heritage Site: The Case Study of the Valley of the Temples in Agrigento (Sicily, Italy).

[90]   Kapferer, J. (1997) Strategic Brand Management. Kogan Page, London, 32.

[91]   Keller, K.L. (1998) Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.

[92]   Aaker, D.A. (1996) Building Strong Brands. The Free Press, New York.

[93]   Cai, A. (2002) Cooperative Branding for Rural Destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 29, 720-742.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00080-9

[94]   Florek, M., Insch, A. and Gnoth, J. (2006) City Council Websites as a Means of Place Brand Identity Communication. Place Branding, 2, 276-296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.6000036

[95]   Baloglu, S. (1996) An Empirical Investigation of Determinants of Tourist Destination Image. Unpublished Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic University, Blacksburg.

[96]   Baloglu, S. and Mangaloglu, M. (2001) Tourism Destination Images of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Italy as Perceived by US-Based Tour Operators and Travel Agents. Tourism Management, 22, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00030-3

[97]   Baloglu, S. and McCleary, K. (1999) A Model of Destination Image Formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26, 868-897.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00030-4

[98]   Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y. and Uysal, M. (2007) Destination Image and Destination Personality. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1, 62-81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17506180710729619

[99]   Mackay, K.J. and Fesenmaier, D.R. (2000) An Exploration of Cross-Cultural Destination Image Assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 38, 417-423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004728750003800411

[100]   Stern, E. and Krakover, S. (1993) The Formation of Composite Urban Image. Geographical Analysis, 25, 130-146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.1993.tb00285.x

[101]   Uysal, M., Chen, J. and Williams, D. (2000) Increasing State Market Share through a Regional Positioning. Tourism Management, 21, 89-96.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00082-5

[102]   Martin, I.M. and Eroglu, S. (1993) Measuring a Multi-Dimensional Construct: Country Image. Journal of Business Research, 28, 191-210.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(93)90047-S

[103]   Whetten, D.A. and Mackey, A. (2002) A Social Actor Conception of Organizational Identity and Its Implications for the Study of Organizational Reputation. Business & Society, 41, 393-414.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0007650302238775

[104]   Russel, J.A., Ward, L.M. and Pratt, G. (1981) Affective Quality Attributed to Environments: A Factor Analytic Study. Environment and Behavior, 13, 259-288.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916581133001

[105]   Echtner, C.M. and Ritchie, J.R.B. (1993) The Measurement of Destination Image: An Empirical Assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 31, 3-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004728759303100402

[106]   Quelch, J. and Jocz, K. (2005) Positioning the Nation-State. Place Branding, 1, 229-237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.5990024

[107]   Morgan, N. and Pritchard, A. (2004) Meeting the Destination Branding Challenge. In: Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R., Eds., Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 59-78.

[108]   Ethiopian Culture and Tourism Minister Quarterly Report on Number of Tourist Arrival (2011).

[109]   Sekaran, U. (2009) Research Method for Business: A Skill Building Approach. 4th Edition, Wiley India, New Delhi.

[110]   Addis Ababa Culture and Tourism Report (2011) Unpublished Document of the Organization.

[111]   Dinnie, K. (2008) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 126.

[112]   Anholt, S. (2006) Competitive Identity: The New Brand Management for Nations, Cities and Regions. Palgrave Macmillan, London.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230627727

[113]   Kotler, P. and Gertner, D. (2004) Country as Brand, Product and Beyond: A Place Marketing and Brand Management Perspective. In: Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R., Eds., Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition, 2nd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 40-56.

[114]   Field, A. (2005) Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. 2nd Edition, Sage, London.

[115]   Hair, J., Money, A., Page, M. and Samouel, P. (2007) Research Methods for Business. Routledge, London.

[116]   Pallant, J. (2010) SPSS Survival Manual. 4th Edition, Open University Press, Buckingham.

[117]   Dinnie, K. (2008) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 72.

[118]   Dinnie, K. (2008) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 228.

 
 
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