JEP  Vol.7 No.2 , February 2016
Detoxification Efforts in Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) Exposed to Municipal and Agricultural Inputs
Abstract: Ecological impacts of contaminants on population patterns in wild fish are impacted by many contaminants that readily enter aquatic systems. Responses to toxicants by individuals in lab studies generally do not predict population level consequences in natural systems. Trace levels of contaminants are present in all major rivers in southern Alberta, Canada, with concentrations higher down-stream of anthropogenic inputs like agricultural land-use and inputs of municipal wastewater effluents. Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) were used as a sentinel species to study field-based population-level responses to contaminants. We hypothesized that biomarker activity, triggered by contaminant exposure, should increase downstream of anthropogenic inputs in two southern Alberta rivers, with corresponding relations between biomarker activity and sex ratios, after accounting for age structure. Liver detoxification (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity = EROD) measured at reference and exposed sites on each river differed significantly in only the Bow River system. Sex ratios varied more downstream of anthropogenic inputs than upstream, but the direction of sex ratio bias was inconsistent and temporally dynamic. Sex ratios correlated with liver detoxification in only the Bow River. Taken together, these results suggest that contaminants alter sex ratios in long-nose dace, but that there is variation in anthropogenic stressors among rivers.
Cite this paper: Tunna, H. , Smits, J. , Rogers, S. and Jackson, L. (2016) Detoxification Efforts in Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) Exposed to Municipal and Agricultural Inputs. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7, 253-267. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.72022.

[1]   Murray, K.E., Thomas, S.M. and Bodour, A.A. (2010) Prioritizing Research for Trace Pollutants and Emerging Contaminants in the Freshwater Environment. Environmental Pollution, 158, 3462-3471.

[2]   Pal, A., Gin, K.Y., Lin, A.Y. and Reinhard, M. (2010) Impacts of Emerging Organic Contaminants on Freshwater Resources: Review of Recent Occurrences, Sources, Fate and Effects. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 6062-6069.

[3]   Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., de Droot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O’Neill, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P. and van den Belt, M. (1997) The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital. Nature, 387, 253-260.

[4]   Strayer, D.L. and Dudgeon, D. (2010) Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation: Recent Progress and Future Challenges. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 344-358.

[5]   Cossu-Leguille, C. and Vasseur, P. (2013) Aquatic Biomarkers. In: Blaise, C. and Férard, J.-F., Eds., Encyclopedia of Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 49-66.

[6]   van der Oost, R., Beyer, J. and Vermeulen, N.P.E. (2003) Fish Bioaccumulation and Biomarkers in Environmental Risk Assessment: A Review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 13, 57-149.

[7]   Smolders, R., Bervoets, L. and Blust, R. (2004) In Situ and Laboratory Bioassays to Evaluate the Impact of Effluent Discharges on Receiving Aquatic Ecosystems. Environmental Pollution, 132, 231-243.

[8]   Bucheli, T.D. and Fent, K. (1995) Induction of Cytochrome P450 as a Biomarker for Environmental Contamination in Aquatic Ecosystems. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 25, 201-268.

[9]   Walker, C.H. (2001) Organic Pollutants: An Ecotoxicologial Perspective. Taylor & Francis Inc., New York.

[10]   Collier, T.K., Stein, B.F.A.J.E., Gokøyr, A. and Varanasi, U. (1995) A Field Evaluation of Cytochrome P4501A as a Biomarker of Contaminant Exposure in Three Species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 14, 143-152.

[11]   Rodgers-Gray, T., Jobling, S., Morris, S., Kelly, C., Kirby, S., Janbakhsh, A., Harris, J.R., Waldock, M.J., Sumpter, J.P. and Tyler, C.R. (2000) Long-Term Temporal Changes in the Estrogenic Composition of Treated Sewage Effluent and Its Biological Effects on Fish. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 1521-1528.

[12]   Whyte, J.J., Jung, R.E., Schmitt, C.J. and Tillit, D.E. (2000) Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylase (EROD) Activity in Fish as a Biomarker of Chemical Exposure. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 30, 347-570.

[13]   Smits, J.E., Wayland, M.E., Miller, M.J., Liber, K. and Trudeau, S. (2000) Reproductive, Immune, and Physiological End Points in Tree Swallows on Reclaimed Oil Sands Mine Sites. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 19, 2951-2960.

[14]   Solé, M., Barceló, D. and Porte, C. (2002) Seasonal Variation of Plasmatic and Hepatic Vitellogenin and EROD Activity in Carp, Cyprinus carpio, in Relation to Sewage Treatment Plans. Aquatic Toxicology, 60, 233-248.

[15]   Foster, E.P., Fitzpatrick, M.S., Feist, G.W., Schreck, C.B., Yates, J., Spitsbergen, J.M. and Heidel, J.R. (2001) Plasma Androgen Correlation, EROD Induction, Reduced Condition Factor, and the Occurrence of Organochlorine Pollutants in Reproductively Immature White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the Columbia River, USA. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 41, 182-191.

[16]   Jeffries, K.M., Jackson, L.J., Peters, L.E. and Munkittrick, K.R. (2008) Changes in Population, Growth, and Physiological Indices of Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) in the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 55, 639-651.

[17]   Nakari, T. (2005) Estrogenicity of Phytosterols Evaluated in Vitro and in Vivo. Environmental Science, 12, 87-97.

[18]   Miller, K.A., Addison, R.F. and Bandiera, S.M. (2004) Hepatic CYP1A Levels and EROD Activity in English Sole: Biomonitoring of Marine Contaminants in Vancouver Harbour. Marine Environment Research, 57, 37-54.

[19]   Munkittrick, K.R. and McCarty, L.S. (1995) An Integrated Approach to Aquatic Ecosystem Health: Top-Down, Bottom-Up, or Middle-Out? Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Health, 4, 77-90.

[20]   Relyea, R. and Hoverman, J. (2006) Assessing the Ecology in Ecotoxicology: A Review and Synthesis in Freshwater Systems. Ecology Letters, 9, 1157-1171.

[21]   Forbes, V.E. and Calow, P. (1999) Is the per Capita Rate of Increase a Good Measure of Population-Level Effects in Ecotoxicology? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18, 1544-1556.

[22]   Kidd, K.A., Blanchfield, P.J., Mills, K.H., Palace, V.P., Evans, R.E., Lazorchak, J.M. and Flick, R.W. (2007) Collapse of a Fish Population after Exposure to a Synthetic Estrogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 8897-8901.

[23]   Palace, V.C., Wautier, K.G., Evans, R.E., Blanchfield, P.J., Mills, K.H., Chalanchuk, S.M., Godard, D., McMaster, M.E., Tetreault, G.R., Peters, L.E., Vandenbyllaardt, L. and Kidd, K.A. (2006) Biochemical and Histopathological Effects in Pearl Dace (Margariscus margarita) Chronically Exposed to a Synthetic Estrogen in a Whole Lake Experiment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25, 1114-1125.

[24]   Evans, J.S., Jackson, L.J., Habibi, H.R. and Ikonomou, M.G. (2012) Feminization of Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) in the Oldman River, Alberta, (Canada) Provides Evidence of Widespread Endocrine Disruption in an Agricultural Basin. Scientifica, 2012, 1-11.

[25]   Jeffries, K.M., Jackson, L.J., Ikonomou, M.G. and Habibi, H.R. (2010) Presence of Natural and Anthropogenic Organic Contaminants and Potential Fish Health Impacts along Two River Gradients in Alberta, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 29, 2379-2387.

[26]   Jeffries, K.M., Nelson, E.R., Jackson, L.J. and Habibi, H.R. (2008) Basin-Wide Impacts of Compounds with Estrogen-Like Activity on Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) in Two Prairie Rivers of Alberta, Canada. Environmental Toxicology, 27, 2042-2052.

[27]   Frederick, P. and Jayasena, N. (2011) Altered Pairing Behaviour and Reproductive Success in White Ibises Exposed to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Methylmercury. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 1851-1857.

[28]   Power, M., Klein, G.M., Guiguer, K.R.R.A. and Kwan, K.H. (2002) Mercury Accumulation in the Fish Community of Sub-Arctic Lake in Relation to Trophic Position and Carbon Sources. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 819-830.

[29]   Kuehn, J.H. (1949) A Study of a Population of Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae). The Minnesota Academy of Science, 17, 81-87.

[30]   Reed, R.J. (1959) Age, Growth, and Food of the Longnose Dace, Rhinichthys catarace, in North-Western Pennsylvania. Copeia, 1959, 160-162.

[31]   Cairns, J. (1986) The Myth of the Most Sensitive Species. BioScience, 36, 670-672.

[32]   Kimball, K.D. and Levin, S.A. (1985) Limitations of Laboratory Bioassays: The Need for Ecosystem-Level Testing. BioScience, 35, 165-171.

[33]   Clements, W.H. and Rohr, J.R. (2009) Community Responses to Contaminants: Using Basic Ecological Principles to Predict Ecotoxicological Effects. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 28, 1789-1800.

[34]   Sosiak, A. and Hebben, T. (2005) A Preliminary Survey of Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Treated Municipal Wastewaters and Receiving Rivers of Alberta. Alberta Environment, Environmental Monitoring and Evaluation Branch, Edmonton.

[35]   Oldman Watershed Council (2005) Oldman River Basin Water Quality Initiative: Five Year Summary Report. Oldman Watershed Council, Lethbridge.

[36]   Nelson, J.S. and Paetz, M.J. (1992) The Fishes of Alberta. 2nd Edition, The University of Alberta Press, Edmonton.

[37]   Brazo, D.C., Liston, C.R. and Anderson, R.C. (1978) Life History of the Longnose Dace, Rhinichthys cataractae, in the Surge Zone of Eastern Lake Michigan near Ludington, Michigan. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 107, 550-556.<550:LHOTLD>2.0.CO;2

[38]   Roberts, J.H. and Grossman, G.D. (2001) Reproductive Characteristics of Female Longnose Dace in the Coweeta Creek Drainage, North Carolina, USA. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 10, 184-190.

[39]   Campana, S.E. (1992) Measurement and Interpretation of the Microstructure of Fish Otoliths. In: Stevenson, D.K. and Campana, S.E., Eds., Otolith Microstructure Examination and Analysis, Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Ottawa, 59-71.

[40]   Eggens, M.L. and Galgani, F. (1992) Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylase (EROD) Activity in Flatfish: Fast Determination with a Flourescence Plate-Reader. Marine Environment Research, 33, 213-221.

[41]   R Core Team (2013) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.

[42]   Blanc, A. (2009) Anthropogenically-Sourced Low Concentration PAHs: In Situ Bioavailability to Juvenile Pacific Salmon. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby.

[43]   Esler, D., Ballachey, B.E., Trust, K.A., Iverson, S.A., Reed, J.A., Miles, A.K., Henderson, J.D., Woodin, B.R., Stegeman, J.J., McAdie, M., Mulcahy, D.M. and Wilson, B.W. (2011) Cytochrome P4501A Biomarker Indication of the Timeline of Chronic Exposure of Barrow’s Goldeneyes to Residual Exxon Valdez Oil. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62, 609-614.

[44]   Jung, J.H., Choi, S.B., Hong, S.H., Chae, Y.S., Kim, H.N., Yim, U.H., Ha, S.Y., Han, G.M., Kim, D.J. and Shim, W.J. (2014) Fish Biological Effect Monitoring of Chemical Stressors Using a Generalized Linear Model in South Sea, Korea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 78, 230-234.

[45]   Richardson, M. (1996) Environmental Xenobiotics. CRC Press, London and Bristol.

[46]   Blanchard, M., Teil, M.J., Carru, A.M., Ollicon, D., Garbon, B., Chesterikoff, A. and Chevreuil, M. (1999) PCB and PAN Impacts on Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Oxidases in Roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the Seine River (France). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 37, 242-250.

[47]   Karels, A.E., Soimasuo, M., Lappivaara, J., Leppänen, H., Aaltonen, T., Mellanen, P. and Oikari, A.O.J. (1998) Effects of ECF-Bleached Kraft Mill Effulent on Reproductive Steriods and Liver MFO Activity in Populations of Perch and Roach. Ecotoxicology, 7, 123-132.

[48]   Senior, A.M. and Nakagawa, S. (2013) A Comparative Analysis of Chemically Induced Sex Reversal in Teleosts: Challenging Conventional Suppositions. Fish and Fisheries, 14, 60-76.

[49]   BRBC (2005) The 2005 Report on the State of the Bow River Basin. BRBC, Calgary.

[50]   Jobling, S. and Tyler, C.R. (2003) Endocrine Disruption in Wild Freshwater Fish. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 75, 2219-2234.

[51]   Mills, L.J. and Chichester, C. (2005) Review of Evidence: Are Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment Impacting Fish Populations? Science of the Total Environment, 343, 1-34.

[52]   Sjolund, W.R. (1974) Collection and Preparation of Scales, Otoliths and Fin Rays for Fish Age Determination. Fisheries Technical Circular No. 12.