Back
 JEP  Vol.7 No.2 , February 2016
Occurrence of Antimicrobials in River Water Samples from Rural Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Abstract: The occurrence of antimicrobials in the aquatic environment and drinking water has raised the question of their impact on the environment and public health. Animal production is one of the most expressive activities of Brazilian agribusiness. In order to ensure the productivity and competitiveness of the sector, the use of drugs for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes is a common practice. Due to the continuous release of antimicrobials into the environment, the aim of this study was to compare the frequency of detection of tetracyclines and sulfonamides in surface water collected from rural areas in Lidice District of Rio Claro, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. An investigative study was conducted with 24 river water samples analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the aim of this study was to determine residues of sulfonamides and tetracyclines based on the USEPA method 1694. The results indicated the presence of sulfamethoxazole and oxytetracycline concentrations at the ng·L-1 level. The applied method showed overall good performance with recoveries above 57%, method detection limits ≤ 7.17 ng·L-1, method quantification limits ≤ 23.90 ng·L-1 and good linearity.
Cite this paper: Monteiro, M. , Spisso, B. , Santos, J. , Costa, R. , Ferreira, R. , Pereira, M. , Miranda, T. , Andrade, B. and d’Avila, L. (2016) Occurrence of Antimicrobials in River Water Samples from Rural Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Journal of Environmental Protection, 7, 230-241. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.72020.
References

[1]   Regitano, J.B. and Leal, R.M.P. (2010) Comportamento e impacto ambiental de antibióticos usados na produção animal brasileira. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 34, 601-616.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832010000300002

[2]   Spisso, B.F., de Oliveira e Jesus, A.L., de Araújo Júnior, M.A.G. and Monteiro, M.A. (2007) Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method with Fluorescence Detection for the Simultaneous Determination of Tetracyclines Residues in Bovine Milk. Analytica Chimica Acta, 581, 108-117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.08.004

[3]   Spisso, B.F., Araújo Júnior, M.A.G., Monteiro, M.A., Lima, A.M.B., Pereira, M.U., Luiz, R.A. and Nóbrega, A.W. (2009) A Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Confirmatory Assay for the Simultaneous Determination of Several Tetracyclines in Milk Considering Keto-Enol Tautomerism and Epimerization Phenomena. Analytica Chimica Acta, 656, 72-84.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2009.10.012

[4]   Spisso, B.F., Ferreira, R.G., Pereira, M.U., Monteiro, M.A., Cruz, T.A., Costa, R.P., Lima, A.M.B. and Nóbrega, A.W. (2010) Simultaneous Determination of Polyether Ionophores, Macrolides and Lincosamides in Hen Eggs by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using a Simple Solvent Extraction. Analytica Chimica Acta, 682, 82-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2010.09.047

[5]   Spisso, B.F., Monteiro, M.A., Pereira, M.U., Ferreira, R.G., Costa, R.P., Cruz, T.A., Lima, A.M.B. and Nóbrega, A.W. (2010) Pilot Survey of Commercial Pasteurized Milk Consumed in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for Tetracyclines Residues, including the 4-Epimers of Oxytetracycline, Tetracycline and Chlortetracycline. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, 3, 220-227.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2010.531401

[6]   Ferreira, R.G., Spisso, B.F., Hora, I.M.C., Monteiro, M.A., Pereira, M.U., Costa, R.P. and Carlos, B.S. (2012) Panorama da ocorrência de resíduos de medicamentos veterinários em leite no Brasil. SAN, 19, 30-49.

[7]   Santos, J.R.M.P. (2015) Desenvolvimento de metodologias para a determinação de sulfonamidas em leite UHT. Dissertation, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro.

[8]   Lipinski, C.A., Lombardo, F., Dominy, B.W. and Feeney, P.J. (1997) Experimental and Computational Approaches to Estimate Solubility and Permeability in Drug Discovery and Development Settings. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 23, 3-25.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-409X(96)00423-1

[9]   Gbylik-Sikorska, M., Posyniak, A., Sniegocki, T. and Zmudzki, J. (2015) Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Multiclass Method for the Determination of Antibiotics Residues in Water Samples from Water Supply Systems in Food-Producing Animal Farms. Chemosphere, 119, 8-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.105

[10]   Heberer, T. (2002) Occurrence, Fate, and Removal of Pharmaceutical Residues in the Aquatic Environment: A Review of Recent Research Data. Toxicology Letters, 131, 5-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(02)00041-3

[11]   Bila, D.M. and Dezotti, M. (2003) Antibióticos no meio ambiente. Quim Nova, 26, 523-530.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422003000400015

[12]   Kümmerer, K. (2003) Significance of Antibiotics in the Environment. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 52, 5-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkg293

[13]   Sanderson, H., Brain, R.A., Johnson, D.J., Wilson, C.J. and Solomon, K.R. (2004) Toxicity Classification and Evaluation of Four Pharmaceuticals Classes: Antibiotics, Antineoplastics, Cardiovascular, and Sex Hormones. Toxicology, 203, 27-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2004.05.015

[14]   Gaffney, V.J., Cardoso, V.V., Rodrigues, A., Ferreira, E., Benoliel, M.J. and Almeida, C.M.M. (2014) Análise de fármacos em águas por SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Quim Nova, 3, 138-149.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422014000100023

[15]   Gros, M., Rodríguez-Mozaz, S. and Barceló, D. (2012) Fast and Comprehensive Multi-Residue Analysis of a Broad Range of Human and Veterinary Pharmaceuticals and Some of Their Metabolites in Surface and Treated Waters by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole-Linear Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1248, 104-121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2012.05.084

[16]   Crestana, G.B. and Silva, J.H. (2011) Antibióticos residuais: Panorama de um cenário negligenciado. REID, 9, 55-65.

[17]   Gros, M., Petrovic, M. and Barceló, D. (2006) Multi-Residue Analytical Methods Using LC-Tandem MS for the Determination of Pharmaceuticals in Environmental and Wastewater Samples: A Review. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 386, 941-952.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-006-0586-z

[18]   Prestes, O.D., Martins, M.L., Friggi, C.A., Munaretto, J.S., Adaime, M.B. and Zanella, R. (2013) O estado da arte na determinação de resíduos de medicamentos veterinários em alimentos de origem animal empregando técnicas cromatográficas acopladas à espectrometria de massas. Quim Nova, 36, 697-710.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422013000500015

[19]   USEPA (2007) Method 1694: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Water, Soil, Sediment, and Biosolids by HPLC/MS/MS.

[20]   Rio Claro Geography (2015)
http://www.achetudoeregiao.com.br/rj/Rio_Claro/localizacao.htm

[21]   Verzegnassi, L., Savoy-Perroud, M.C. and Stadler, R.H. (2002) Application of Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry to the Detection of 10 Sulfonamides in Honey. Journal of Chromatography A, 977, 77-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(02)01341-9

[22]   Hirsch, R., Ternes, T.A., Haberer, K., Mehlich, A., Ballwanz, A.F. and Kratz, K. (1998) Determination of Antibiotics in Different Water Compartments via Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 815, 213-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(98)00335-5

[23]   Yang, S., Cha, J. and Carlson, K. (2005) Simultaneous Extraction and Analysis of 11 Tetracycline and Sulfonamide Antibiotics in Influent and Effluent Domestic Wastewater Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1097, 40-53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.08.027

[24]   Ferrer, I., Zweigenbaum, J.A. and Thurman, E.M. (2010) Analysis of 70 Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pharmaceuticals in Water by EPA Method 1694. Journal of Chromatography A, 1217, 5674-5686.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.07.002

[25]   Locatelli, M.A.F., Sodre, F.F. and Jardim, W.F. (2011) Determination of Antibiotics in Brazilian Surface Waters Using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60, 385-393.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-010-9550-1

[26]   KNAPPE (2008) Knowledge and Need Assessment on Pharmaceutical Products in Environmental Waters. Sixth Framework Programme.

[27]   López-Roldán, R., Alda, M.L., Gros, M., Petrovic, M., Martín-Alonso, J. and Barceló, D. (2010) Advanced Monitoring of Pharmaceuticals and Estrogens in the Llobregat River Basin (Spain) by Liquid Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Combination with Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry. Chemosphere, 80, 1337-1344.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.06.042

[28]   Gros, M., Rodríguez-Mozaz, S. and Barceló, D. (2013) Rapid Analysis of Multiclass Antibiotic Residues and Some of Their Metabolites in Hospital, Urban Wastewater and River Water by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole-Linear Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1292, 173-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2012.12.072

[29]   Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Thurman, E.M., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B. and Buxton, H.T. (2002) Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in US Streams, 1999-2000: A National Reconnaissance. Environmental Science & Technology, 36, 1202-1211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es011055j

[30]   Kolpin, D.W., Skopec, M., Meyer, M.T., Furlong, E.T. and Zaugg, S.D. (2004) Urban Contribution of Pharmaceuticals and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants to Streams during Differing Flow Conditions. Science of the Total Environment, 328, 119-130.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.01.015

[31]   Vanderford, B.J., Pearson, R.A., Rexing, D.J. and Snyder, S.A. (2003) Analysis of Endocrine Disruptors, Pharmaceuticals, and Personal Care Products in Water Using Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 75, 6265-6274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac034210g

[32]   Conley, J.M., Symes, S.J., Schorr, M.S. and Richards, S.M. (2008) Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Pharmaceutical Concentrations in the Upper Tennessee River Basin. Chemosphere, 73, 1178-1187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.07.062

[33]   Wang, C., Shi, H., Adams, C.D., Gamagedara, S., Stayton, I., Timmons, T. and Ma, Y. (2011) Investigation of Pharmaceuticals in Missouri Natural and Drinking Water Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Water Research, 45, 1818-1828.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.11.043

[34]   Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R.M. and Guwy, A.J. (2007) Multi-Residue Method for the Determination of Basic/ Neutral Pharmaceuticals and Illicit Drugs in Surface Water by Solid-Phase Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Positive Electrospray Ionisation Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1161, 132-145.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.05.074

[35]   Jia, A., Xiao, Y., Hu, J., Asami, M. and Kunikane, S. (2009) Simultaneous Determination of Tetracyclines and Their Degradation Products in Environmental Waters by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1216, 4655-4662.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2009.03.073

[36]   Koreje, K.O., Demeestere, K., Wispelaere, P., Vergeynst, L., Dewulf, J. and Langenhove, H.V. (2012) From Multiresidue Screening to Target Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Water: Development of a New Approach Based on Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry and Application in the Nairobi River Basin, Kenya. Science of the Total Environment, 437, 153-164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.07.052

 
 
Top