Back
 JWARP  Vol.8 No.2 , February 2016
Assessment of Biomass Productivities of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus in Defined Media and Municipal Wastewater at Varying Concentration of Nitrogen
Abstract: Microalgae are emerging as one of the most promising long-term sustainable sources of renewable energy. Studies were conducted on two freshwater Chlorophytes, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus to evaluate heterotrophic growth rate and biomass productivity in filter-sterilized defined medium (BG 11) and municipal wastewater, both with varying concentrations of nitrogen (N). For each isolate, cultures were separately incubated in triplicate at room temperature with constant agitation on a shaker at 150 rpm for 9 days. In 0.25 mg N/L BG11 medium, the growth rate and biomass productivity of C. vulgaris were 0.28 day-1 and 3.5 g·L-1, respectively. In wastewater, the same amount of N addition resulted in a higher growth rate 0.44 day-1 and associated biomass productivity of 4.96 g·L-1. Increasing N levels to 0.5 mg N/L in BG11 caused an increase in growth rate (0.37 day-1) and biomass productivity (4.28 g·L-1), while the increase in N in wastewater caused growth to decline to 0.32 day-1 with decreased biomass productivity of 2.19 g·L-1. A further increase in N to 1.0 mg N/L in BG11 caused an increase in the growth rate (0.43 day-1) and a decrease in biomass productivity (3.64 g·L-1), while in wastewater, growth rate and productivity of C. vulgaris were 0.32 day-1 and 2.31 g·L-1, respectively. Overall, C. vulgaris grew faster and produced greater biomass than S. obliquus under comparable conditions. Based on high growth rate and biomass productivity of C. vulgaris, it could be a potential candidate for further consideration for simultaneous wastewater treatment and biofuel production.
Cite this paper: Fadeyi, O. , Dzantor, K. and Adeleke, E. (2016) Assessment of Biomass Productivities of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus in Defined Media and Municipal Wastewater at Varying Concentration of Nitrogen. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 217-225. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.82018.
References

[1]   Talebian-Kiakalaieh, A., Amin, N.A.S. and Mazaheri, H. (2013) A Review on Novel Processes of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil. Applied Energy, 104, 683-710.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.11.061

[2]   Ahmad, A.L., Yasin, N.H.M., Derek, C.J.C. and Lim, J.K. (2011) Microalgae as a Sustainable Energy Source for Biodiesel Production: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 584-593.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.018

[3]   Nerurkar, N. (2011) U.S. Oil Imports: Context and Considerations. CRS Report for Congress R41675.
https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41765.pdf

[4]   O’Harra, D. (2011) Gulf Spill as Stressful as Exxon Valdez for Alabamans. Alaska Dispatch News.
http://www.adn.com/article/gulf-spill-stressful-exxon-valdez-alabamans

[5]   Bluemink, E. (2010) Size of Exxon Spill Remains Disputed. Alaska Dispatch News.
http://www.adn.com/article/20100605/size-exxon-spill-remains-disputed

[6]   Pietroski, J.P., White, J.R. and DeLaune, R.D. (2015) Effects of Dispersant Used for Oil Spill Remediation on Nitrogen Cycling in Louisiana Coastal Salt Marsh Soil. Chemosphere, 119, 562-567.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.07.050

[7]   Onwurah, I.N.E., Ogugua, V.N., Onyike, N.B., Ochonogor, A.E. and Otitoju, O.F. (2007) Crude Oil Spills in the Environment, Effects and Some Innovative Clean-Up Biotechnologies. International Journal of Environmental Research, 1, 307-320.

[8]   Pittman, J.K., Dean, A.P. and Osundeko, O. (2011) The Potential of Sustainable Algal Biofuel Production Using Wastewater Resources. Bioresource Technology, 102, 17-25.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.035

[9]   Balat, M. and Balat, H. (2010) Progress in Biodiesel Processing. Applied Energy, 87, 1815-1835.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.01.012

[10]   Sforza, E., Simionato, D., Giacometti, G.M., Bertucco, A. and Morosinotto, T. (2012) Adjusted Light and Dark Cycles Can Optimize Photosynthetic Efficiency in Algae Growing in Photobioreactors. PLoS One, 7, e38973.

[11]   Chisti, Y. (2013) Constraints to Commercialization of Algal Fuels. Journal of Biotechnology, 167, 201-414.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2013.07.020

[12]   Abou-Shanab, R.A.I., Hwang, J.-H, Cho, Y., Min, B. and Jeon, B.-H. (2011) Characterization of Microalgal Species Isolated from Fresh Water Bodies as a Potential Source for Biodiesel Production. Applied Energy, 88, 3300-3306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.01.060

[13]   Abdelaziz, A.E.M., Leite, G.B., Belhaj, M.A. and Hallenbeck, P.C. (2014) Screening Microalgae Native to Quebec for Wastewater Treatment and Biodiesel Production. Bioresource Technology, 157, 140-148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.114

[14]   Ji, F., Liu, Y., Hao, R., Li, G., Zhou, Y. and Dong, R. (2014) Biomass Production and Nutrients Removal by a New Microalgae Strain Desmodesmus sp. in Anaerobic Digestion Wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 161, 200-207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.034

[15]   Lee, S.H., Ahn, C.Y., Jo, B.H., Lee, S.A., Park, J.Y., An, K.G. and Oh, H.M. (2013) Increased Microalgae Growth and Nutrient Removal Using Balanced N:P Ratio in Wastewater. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 23, 92-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1210.10033

[16]   Rippka, R., Deruelles, J., Waterbury J.B., Herdman, M. and Roger, Y. (1979) Generic Assignments, Strain Histories and Properties of Pure Cultures of Cyanobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology, 111, 1-61.

[17]   Pienkos, P.T. and Darzins, A. (2009) The Promise and Challenges of Microalgal-Derived Biofuels. Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining, 3, 431-440.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bbb.159

[18]   Cai, T., Park S.Y. and Yebo, L. (2013) Nutrient Recovery from Wastewater Streams by Microalgae: Status and Prospects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 19, 360-369.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.030

[19]   Chiu, S.Y., Kao, C.Y., Chen, C.H., Kuan, T.C., Ong, S.C. and Lin, C.S. (2008) Reduction of CO2 by a High-Density Culture of Chlorella sp. in a Semicontinuous Photobioreactor. Bioresource Technology, 99, 3389-3396.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.08.013

[20]   Shen, Q., Gong, Y., Fang, W., Bi, Z., Cheng, L., Xu, X. and Chen, H. (2015). Saline Wastewater Treatment by Chlorella vulgaris with Simultaneous Algal Lipid Accumulation Triggered by Nitrate Deficiency. Bioresource Technology, 193, 68-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.06.050

[21]   Kuo, C.M., Chen, T.Y., Lin, T.H., Kao, C.Y., Lai, J.T., Chang, J.S. and Lin, C.S. (2015) Cultivation of Chlorella sp. GD Using Piggery Wastewater for Biomass and Lipid Production. Bioresource Technology, 194, 326-333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.07.026

[22]   Wu, L.F., Chen, P.C., Huang, A.P. and Lee, C.M. (2012) The Feasibility of Biodiesel Production by Microalgae Using Industrial Wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 113, 14-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.12.128

[23]   Abou-Shanab, R.A.I, Ji, M.-K., Kim, H.-C., Paeng, K.-J. and Jeon, B.-H. (2013) Microalgal Species Growing on Piggery Wastewater as a Valuable Candidate for Nutrient Removal and Biodiesel Production. Journal of Environmental Management, 115, 257-264.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.11.022

[24]   Mata, T.M., Melo, A.C., Simões, M. and Caetano, N.S. (2012) Parametric Study of a Brewery Effluent Treatment by Microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus. Bioresource Technology, 107, 151-158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.12.109

[25]   Ratanaporn, L., Thidarat, P. and Mutiyaporn, P. (2014) Effect of Nitrogen and Carbon Sources on Growth and Lipid Production from Mixotrophic Growth of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering, 8, 369-372.

[26]   Cho, S., Thao, T., Lee, D., Oh, Y. and Lee, T. (2011) Reuse of Effluent Water from a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant in Microalgae Cultivation for Biofuel Production. Bioresource Technology, 102, 8639-8645.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.03.037

[27]   Fung, K.S., Ngu, H., Ngee, L., Liew, E. and Teng, W. (2013) Optimization of Nutrient Media Composition for Microalgae Biomass Production Using Central Composite Design. Chemeca, 278-282.

[28]   Li, Y., Horsman, M., Wang, B., Wu, N. and Lan, C.Q. (2008) Effects of Nitrogen Sources on Cell Growth and Lipid Accumulation of Green Alga Neochloris oleoabundans. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 81, 629-636.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1681-1

 
 
Top