Received 26 January 2016; accepted 21 February 2016; published 24 February 2016
In the philosophical opinions, Modernity induces “Human Crisis”; while Rationality is denounced as the culprit, people are also looking for ways to get rid of the negative impacts of modernity, which extending to tourism sociology, modern tourism(mass tourism) is deemed to be “response of the ambivalence to the modernity living conditions  . But with the postmodernism (based on the core of anti-rationality) theoretical critique to modernity and modern tourism, on one side, postmodern tourism claims to destroy the traditional tourism rules and order (such as mining new destinations and new tourism resources, creating new tour fashion and new tourism consumption values)  , and agrees tourists’ individual behavior of initiative, emotion, returning to nature, service with humanistic spirit  . There is no doubt that according to these, postmodern tourism behavior plays a positive role of irritating individuals a more variable pursuit and a more reasonable tourism development pattern; postmodern tourism seems to be an appearance of anti-rationality; and reason ought to pay the malpractice of modernity seemingly.
However, on other sides of postmodernism itself, such as escapism, anti-tradition, anti-rationality, historical nihilism, “Death of Man” and so on, especially the negative aspects of the self-centered, ego catharsis, psychological carnival, the excessive pursuit of sensory stimulation and pleasure, obsessed in semiotic interpretation with rejecting semiology, eventually, results in ideological confusion, following the “sick man” birth, which extremely causes adverse impact to tourism and threatens to the social civilization ethic. In November 2014, “Tourism International Science Symposium and the China Tourism Academy Dean Forum” mentioned tourism ethical issues again, many celebrated tourism scholars expressed their concerns.
As a human activity, undoubtedly tourism behavior is the exposition of social ideological motivations and values acting in tourists’ activities; therefore, regulating the tourism behavior, promoting tourism culture and ethics in tourism field, it is natural to explore people’s travel motives and tourism values from social ideological trends. Professor Xia Zancai (2005) once proposed that the research of tourism ethics must be placed into deeper philosophical background  . While the question is the philosophy as the concept expression of the rationalistic spirit  , though the inherent contest of rationalism and irrationalism ideology, now is tending to Neo-rationalism spirit. Why does it can work for tourism ethics? Postmodern is considered to be anti-rationality; if this means postmodern tourism is object to rationality? As a not yet flourishing commonly philosophy after Postmodernism, whether the Neo-Rationalism spirit could eliminate the drawbacks of modern tourism, providing direction and guidance for tourism ethics?
2. Reason, Postmodernism and Neo-Rationalism
2.1. The Connotation of Reason
The etymology of “reason” derives from the Greek word “Nous”, “Concise Encyclopedia Britannica” interpret it as: the ability and process of logical inference in the philosophy, and “with this ability, the basic truth could be intuitively grasped”  . Usually, Reason is considered to be human’s subjective force, one ability that human’s introspection, judgment and mind intellectual powers dealing with the relationship between Ego, ID, and Superego. In certain subjective and objective conditions, Reason help the subject make logical conclusions and decisions conformed to the social and the human’s development with the acquired knowledge and ideas, to know and reform the world, so as to achieve one’s ideal, value, purpose  .
Reason has produced various political system, formed the moral principles, and creates a variety of cultural values, theories and ideological faction  . With the production (showing the broad knowledge system, including natural knowledge, social knowledge and humanistic knowledge) of rational activity, can human-beings realize rational ability self-renewal, the leap of people’s cultural and ethical quality, so as to a perfect level  , that is the transcendent unity of individual realization existence and objective world existence.
Reason is especially significant to the formation and development of modern society. Meng Benman (2002) emphasizes the coupling relationship between the development of human society history and the reason growth, supporting that modern civilization can not be formed without the whole social development rationality, including political reason, economic reason and culture reason  . Feng Ziyi (2009) holds the similar opinion that with the enlightenment, guidance and promotion of rationality, human society be able to get rid of the religious ignorance and theological rules, so as to see the dawn of modern civilization and step into the modern society  .
2.2. Alienation of Rationality: Rationalism and Instrumental Rationality
Just like a bomb, reason opens the modern civilization, and the following explosion dust provides soil to modern society continuing progress and development. From then on, reason equals to modernity. Reason was flaunt, adored, and rampant beyond everything, and regarded as omnipotent weapons, Reason gradually evolved into the extreme technical and instrumental rationality (extremely believe in empirical knowledge and technological inventions and mathematical computation), and the practical rationality, induced 20th century confronted with war devastation many times, human survival was to be threatened; while the humane rationality was derogatory, people or lost ideal, advocating nihilism and anarchy, or make the deification of spirit faith, fall into mysticism, human society was filled with a variety of spiritual crisis. Excessively canonizing the instrumental rationality (knowledge can be equated to “technical knowledge”) and abandoning humanistic rationality function together to the survival crisis, belief crisis and moral crisis, results into the spread of irrationalism and anti-rationalism. Reason became devil in modern society, was deeply condemned and rejected. From Nietzsche, Heidegger’s philosophy at the beginning of the 20th century to postwar Existentialism, Foucault doctrine, the wave of anti-rationalism philosophy overflows on the theoretical, ideological and actual life filed, has had influence every aspects of modern society process, postmodernism was rightly born in such a condition of irrationalism and anti-rationalism philosophy.
Postmodernism as ideological trend rejected to western modern philosophy, treating the “disavowal”, “destruction”, “deconstruction” and “subversion” of all the existing ideas, values and institutions as the purpose, and regarding “anti-tradition, anti-rationality, anti-integrity” as the fundamental mark. Since the history of Western philosophy is a reason history, postmodernism fighting modern philosophy, takes the performance of revealing more dark sides of reason and links the reason to totalitarian oppressors, worse more, it changes the subversion of reason from epistemological field to social and political fields; in epistemology, postmodernism simply denied any signifying activities, deeming everything is just a game of language that only; in terms of value, postmodernism totally denied the existence of any value, abolished the position and role of the subject, and declared the “death of human”; in the conception of history, postmodernism thoroughly divided the integrated, coherent history into fragmentation  . Born in the sun and rain of anti-modernism ideology, when postmodernism deconstructed the technical logos thoroughly, announcing the end of modernity straightforwardly, it also deconstructed the value and spirit which humanities rely on  .
Although reason seems to be faced with the crisis of “the end of philosophy” in context of postmodernism, reason as the foundation of modern society is still solid, human survival and development of human society has always been unable to departure from the nourishment and regulation of rationalistic spirit  . The outlet of modern society, rightly as Wang Xianwei (2013) has said, must be from the relationship of philosophy, human survival meaning and environment, to examine and define the boundary and scope of rationality  , thus, can build the thorough connotation of rationality. The neo-rationalism combining western traditional rationalism with Chinese traditional culture, is the right direction that the construction and innovation of the human rationalistic spirit in the contemporary world should committed to.
On the backgroud of the 20th century realities (human crisis)at home and abroad, but also western philosophy, Professor Qian Zhongwen, Xu Ming raised the Neo-rationalism (or new rational spirit) in the 1990s. Which original intention is as a reconstruction of literary and artistic value, spiritual anchor, the coming years, Professor Qian Zhongwen have been committing to extend it from literature and art field to humanities field.
Conceptually, Neo-rationalism is a kind of rationalistic spirit taking modernity as guidance, with new humanistic spirit as the connotation and core, as well as adopting communication and dialogue as way of thinking  , disapproving explain the life reality and history with an attitude of irrirationalism and anti-rationalism, besides, it criticizes the unlimited flush of sensibility enjoyment, particularly human physiological instinct pleasure  , and advocates the new humanistic spirit and new practical reason to balance the lack of humanistic spirit in contemporary society, the overflow of instrumental rationality and earthly materialism.
Characteristically, Han Zhen (1996) stressed that the Neo-rationalism neither accepts rationalism superstitiously (realize the historical limitations of reason itself), nor repels irrational factors  ; Liu Kunyuan (2006) pointed out that the Neo-rationalism treats the “new humanistic spirit” as its connotation and flesh, in large view of historical materialism and humanism, under the witness of the mutual relationship between human society, technology and nature, contemplates and concerns to human existence and destiny, builds the spirit pursuit of the nation and human existence value  ; Li Dongqing (2007) clarified the Neo-rationalism could accommodate and play an active role in the irrational factors, and with real reason to realize the “person with integrity” (including rational and irrational factors, that is “real person”)  .
Connotatively, Neo-rationalism uphold cultural rationality(both concern about the survival and development of the nation and mankind), moral rationality (practical reason), historical rationality (not only to real depiction of daily life, but also can beyond reality, maintain a unique meditation on life and evaluation), advocates the principle of aesthetic sublimation, not insulated from rational, irrational ideology in western culture that as a branch of mankind original culture, and always genetically linked with China’s Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism philosophy  , therefore, it is dialectical unity between instrumental rationality and value rationality, scientific spirit and humanistic spirit, rationalism and irrationalism. From the people of integrity and complete meaning, neo-rationalism reveal the man’s multiple attributes and meanings, utilizing reason with emotion, controlling emotion through reason, its advocacy of new humanistic spirit not only concerns people living circumstances and conflicts, but also concerns real life, the ideal personality and social ideals, which both is a realistic concern (the present world concern), but also a transcended concern (that is, the ultimate concern or final care).
3. Tourism, Postmodern Tourism, and Reason
All the achievements of modern Europe is the product of reason, the rationalistic spirit widely infiltrates in various fields of social life  . Reason opens the modern society, and the emergence and development of modern society contribute to the birth of modern tourism in turn, modern tourism especially mass tourism as a product of the modern western capitalist society, from the organization, tourism products, tourism culture, to the design of tourist attractions, purpose of tourists experience, also not necessarily get rid of the profound influence of the rationalism.
3.1. Review of Tourism and Reason
Based on a search results of Wanfang, CNKI and VIP database, the paper rarely finds literature directly titled “rational tourism” or “tourism reason”. Of which, the more representative such as Yu Jinghua, Li Jiang Feng (2009) and Zhu Huying (2010) analyzed the causes of irrational behavior and decision-making process of tourism consumption, emphasizing the influence of irrational factors in tourist consume behavior. Zhang Hui, Bai Changhong (2011) compared the two types of consumers’ online shopping intention model under the guidance of the theory of reason action and theory of planned behavior (TPB); in “consumer behavior analysis of selected tourism program”, He Wenhua (2011) criticized the economic theory hypothesis “complete rationalism” based on irrational factors. All above-mentioned research on the relationship between tourism and reason still mainly from the category of the traditional economics (based on rationalism hypothesis) and behavioral economics (based on bounded rationality) to explore rational factors, particularly irrational factors of tourism consumer behavior, partly from Game Theory and Equilibrium Theory to analysis tourism consumers cognitive selection, risk aversion and behavior path of decision-making, its essence belongs to the category of maximizing personal interests as “rational agent”.
However, in the field of tourism sociology, studies on tourism and reason stem from tourism modernity. Modernity problem, that is, people’s crisis, results in fracture of time and space, as well as the lack of survival significance  , people hope to seek relief or escape through travel activities, Rojek (1993) held the opinions that tourism is the product of making up the loss (a sense of lost) brought about by modernity  , the domestic scholars such as Wang Ning (1999) believed modernity and its ambivalence response is one of the social conditions of modern tourism took place  , Jiang Bin (2009) regarded modernity and its induced crisis of human spirit and authenticity was the impetus for tourism behavior  ; In the context of modernity, tourism was also considered to be a “modern ritual,” a way that people respond to the existential crisis, social crisis, economic crisis and spiritual crisis and many other disorders, a pair of nostrum to solve the related problems brought by modernity  . In the field of philosophy, since modernity is seen as an inevitable result of rationality evolution, and with highly inherent logic can not be broken  , therefore, tourism has inevitable linkages with reason.
As core elements of modernity logic, reason (here refers to “instrumental rationality”) is regarded as a target for social anomie, also has been condemned and criticized in tourism filed. Xu Yishan (2010) emphasized the instrumental rationality, utilitarianism and commercialization caused the eagerness for tourism planning, the lack of aesthetic concept and humane care in tourism and the single economic evaluation system  ; Gao ke (2014) accused modernity (with a scientific and rational domination) make religion lost its external environment of “natural evolution”  .
Although modern tourism was deeply criticized, but reason as a core element of modernity, has created political, economic, and social and cultural conditions for the rise of modern tourism, tourism is also becoming a “social fact” in the context of modernity. Tourism (particularly mass tourism) just like a cure for psychological trauma, an effective way out of the dilemma of modernity, both provides modern people with a path to spirit of individuality liberation and freedom (the spiritual home of utopia), also a method of correcting mistakes of modernity   - . Instead, the spiritual home of tourism function provides a way for amending rationalism. In addition, the real reason based on “truth of logic” and “truth of ethic”, meaning of “good” and “beauty”, not only the performance of the “rule” in the universe, but also contains human ethic “truth,” and reflects the person “instinct”, is a unity of scientific rationality, human rationality and historical rationality  , what is more, rational humanistic dimension, that is, the liberation of humanity, liberty, fraternity, equality, the emphasis on people’s ultimate concern, is also same as the pursuit and expression of tourism.
3.2. Postmodern Tourism and Rationalism
Postmodern tourism is the product of the postmodernism ideology acting in tourism field. Along with the ethos and rejection of anti-rationalism as the core of postmodernism to rationalism, post-modernism of modernity and modern tourism has also been strongly criticized. In the postmodernists’ views, modern tourism typically have stylized, passive, commercialized, homogeneous, vulgar, and mandatory features  , is the results of modern capitalism rationalism affecting to tourism filed, namely results of modernity intrinsic influence (instrumental rationality oriented, moral integrity, mechanistic, homogenization)  . The phenomenon of Postmodern tourism generation reflects the tourists on human subjectivity awakening and merciless critique of reason, which both impact the existing tourism order, but also profoundly changed the meaning of tourist attractions, as well as the connotation of tourism space, time, even redefined the concept of tourism: due to the pursuit of individual freedom and authenticity. In postmodernism opinions, people can always be a tourist in anywhere and anytime, tourism can be in any activity forms, any activity can also be seen as tourism  .
Research on postmodern tourism is becoming one of the new situation of the current tourism academia. On issues 7 & 8 of 2014 “Tourism Tribune” launches topic “research of tourism consumer behavior in the postmodernism perspective” Wu Qiaohong (2014), Zheng Jianxiong (2014), Huang Chenchen (2014), Zhong Shien and Zhang Jinhe (2014) and others addressed the main features of the post-modern tourism: the concern on humanity and the individual subject initiative, freedom; focus on cultural diversity; experience and emotion; with humanistic spirit and ecological awareness   - .
In response to modernity of tourism, postmodern tourism itself has a duality. On the one hand, despite the criticism and reflection of positive postmodern tourism (as described above) against instrumental rationality as the core of tourism modernity, as Zuo Xiaosi (2005) called “post-modernity and rural tourism both are derived from revealing the dark sides and consciousness to modernity”, but she also admitted that “from post-modernity to modernity, essentially was a return from rationalism to humanism”  ; Lin Derong (2014) from the perspective of the history of “positive and negative dialectics”, pointed out that the postmodern society is a rebellion and reflection to industrial society, but any rebellion against tradition, that means some kind of dialogue and inheritance, tradition inevitably reborn again and contained in the future in some forms, specific to tourism consumption behavior, postmodern tourism consume behavior is filled with a return to tradition, has the characteristic of “salute to tradition”  .
On the other hand, undesirable behavior of postmodern tourism stems from the negativity of postmodernism, such as escapism, historical nothingness, self-extinction, anarchism, liberalism and so on, caused negative impacts to tourism fields, such as tourism revelry, tourism fling, wanderlust and tourism shopping addiction, at the same time, some vulgar behavior art design hyped though tourism trend has caused the profound ethical issues, Wei Xiaoan (2006) has stressed that lag deficiency of our spiritual development leads to a serious lack of citizenship morality. Uncivilized phenomenon in the tourism activities is one of the manifestation of social morality absence  , While the reflection and criticism and its moral education function of reason itself is an effective way to promote construction of spiritual civilization, tourism civilization exactly need reason to carry out radically.
4. Tourism, Postmodern Tourism and Neo-Rationalism
Neo-rationalism as a constructive and superior philosophical outcome that China’s marxists put forward with the reference to the ancient Chinese wisdom, adopting western rationalism and irrationalism and all the achievements of postmodernism  , provides the survival and inheritance of mankind with philosophy and spirit guidance, is considered a flag in the field of ideology and methodology in the 21st century. While the essence of tourism was seen as poetic inhabitation and to enjoy a poetic lives of self-realization  . The word “poetry” itself largely means the aesthetic, the perceptual and emotional expression, how does it relate to Neo-rationalism? Whether Neo-rationalism could rectify the disadvantages of postmodern tourism?
4.1. Tourism Aesthetic Sensibility Fits the Connotation of New Rational Spirit
Different from foreign tourism activities focusing on tourism activity forms, China’s tourism activities often has an association with aesthetic appreciation, such as Ye Lang said: “the essence of travel is an the aesthetic activities”  ; Zhong Shien put forward the concept of “tour appreciation”  . China’s tourism appreciation was divided into three levels in China tourism history: pleasing to the eye, pleasing mind and heart, pleasing to will and spirit. According to the “view of life confines” referring to Feng Youlan, Cao Guoxin divided travel hierarchy into “vulgar travel”, “expense travel”, “travel for knowledge” and “spiritual travel”  . Preliminary hierarchy of tour appreciation (pleasing to eyes) is a kind of sensibility enjoyment, that exists between “vulgar travel” and “expense travel” level, usually characterized by the pursuit of pleasure, freshness, stimulation and surprise in tourism; In the middle hierarchy (pleasing to mind and heart), namely “travel for knowledge”, tourists usually pay attention to the adjustment of body, mind, knowledge, personal cultural interest, and with some tourism ethics, alignment with natural environment and hosts; High level (pleasing to will and spirit) shows the individual life perception at the present time and the scene, that is, reaching to the duality of subjects and objects, the unity of heaven-man and the yearning, spirit harbor in future space-time.
Tourism appreciation such as Wu Hailun said: by the appreciation, people can experience the spirit freedom, which appeared in the life is “poetic inhabitation”  . Regarding humanism as the core, Neo-rationalism affirms people’s perceptual existence, desire, happiness and endows people with individual freedom, self-esteem and independent existence, reconcile mutual relationship between man and nature, man and man, the present livings and future development, so that human sensibility most fully show its vitality and unlimited various forms  . Meanwhile, it is necessary to appeal Neo-rationalism to restore aesthetic sublimation and improve life quality and humanity levels under the situations of reason alienation, materialism and money worship  .
Therefore, the perceptual aesthetics of tourism can’t refuse rationality and Neo-rationalism, on the contrary, tourism needs the capacity of achieving a more reasonable world of rationality and Neo-rationalism to amend the damages to tourism attractions that caused by low-level tourism pleasure activities, tourism unreasonable investment planning, tourism ethics. At the same time, with the new rational spirit, tourism individuals can reach a more higher, more fully, more perfect tourism aesthetic experience.
4.2. Tourism Emotional Expression Is in Harmony with Neo-Rationalism
Tourism emotional expression is usually characterized by the pursuit of pleasant and thrilled experience, to the post-modern context is the ego identity and diversified individual demands, or realize transcendence, switching freely from the secular world to divine world. All these tourism emotional appeal, which embody the tourists on the self expression of human nature, the confusion, conflict and tangle to society, as well as the exploration to the relationship between individuals, society and the universe. Ordinary people can not satisfactorily explain themselves and the world in the philosophy, while through tourism enjoying travel experience and emotional expression would be close to “true”, “beauty”, and “good” secular world. This kind of travel behavior is conformed with the logic of promoting reason, and full of Neo-rationalism glory.
Chinese philosophy has always been concerned about the meaning and value of human existence, in the context of China’s reason neither is the pure form reason nor the logical reason, but contains content of emotion expression, has a link with value reason and moral reason  . Zhu Zhifang (2007) puts forward emotion is contained in reason connotation  , and demonstrates this point from philosophy, cognitive and behavioral science, biology, neuroscience, Neo-rationalism as a product of the China’s culture with emotion inherently, admits people’s perceptual emotion and aesthetic appreciation, and esteems personal freedom and value pursuit, can effectively improve individuals mind and emotion hierarchy. In a word, it is harmony with the tourism emotion expression.
4.3. Claims of Postmodern Tourists and Neo-Rationalism
Postmodern tourists behavior often advocated “people pursue the meet of self-awareness, self-perception and self-design”, no longer simply accept the world “completely planned” or “has been written and interpreted”, but to create the facts on their own initiative value judgment, pursing authenticity consistent with their own implications (ontology implications  , the spirit joy and freedom, and the life return  and so on.
As Wen Bing (2007) puts it: the fundamental standpoint of postmodernists doesn’t discard reason, but insist on the inherent critique logic of reason, announces a more profound rationality proposition  , that is, treat person as a real man, and respect humanity. Thus, behind the postmodern tourist behavior, it reflects a more profound reason that tourists claims and demands, namely people’s ultimate concern. Meanwhile, the “truth promotion logic” of complete, real reason is exactly the unity of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit  , naturally, the appeal of post-modern tourism is consistent with the reason connotation.
As to Neo-rationalism, which is the recall to true reason, affirms the theoretical value of irrationalism (admits by irrational factors, such as instinct, desire, emotion, will, faith can grasp “objective reality”, and esteems life experience), but also does not exclude the relativity pluralism of postmodernism. Neo-rationalism is the transcendent summary and upgrade of past human wisdom (East and West), includes both scientific rationality: explore the truth of the nature and the universe, study the rules of society rise and fall; and the humanistic rationality: concerned about the state of human existence, fate, values and character. Therefore, after postmodernism the new rational spirit philosophy, both encourage and recognize the positive demands of modern tourism, also can use the reason ability to eliminate drawbacks of modern tourism performing the role of value reference and guidance for tourism ethics and tourism behavior.
5. The Main Task of Tourism Development in Future: Adopt and Promote Neo-Rationalism
Admittedly, since the past three decades of the reform and opening up, tourism has been experiencing a booming growth and a radical transformation, while what is worse, tourism now are facing with various contradictions, such as the conflicts between investment, development and management; the contradiction between consumption and capacity, the symbiosis of tourism civilization and drawbacks). On the background of the “policy on promoting the reform and development of tourism” launched by State Council in 2014, we should merely be pleased to see the rise of tourism status and its importance to national life, but ought to be more vigilant that the direction of the current tourism development, and the bad tourist phenomenon (especially the history nihilism, anarchism, hegemonism and individual demise brought by negative postmodernism) would induce serious challenge to tour ethics not yet standardized. In the 2014” NPC & CPPCC”, civilized tourism and ecotourism are also mentioned again, which showing people as individuals in society the pursuit and appeal for their own living environment, lifestyle and future better life state.
Fairness, justice, freedom and the “true, beauty, good” is the common pursuit of human civilization, tourism as the human soul habitat and spiritual home, especially now become a way of life, the change of tourism representation just reals the changes of the subjective individuals engaged. Therefore, it is of great significance to civilize human, establish travel ethics and a healthy and reasonable development of human society through promoting Neo-rationalism, accepting the ability of reason rationalizing the world, the ultimate orientation of “true, beauty, good” world and caring for humanity itself.
Through analysing the inherent relationship among reason, modernity and tourism, this paper emphasizes that eliminating the negative factors of postmodernism in social daily lives and tourism process by promoting neo- rationalism, not only would have highly prospective significance to tourism itself, but also lead a sound development of the whole society. In addition, the paper hopes that tourism academic institution strengthens the neo- rationalism research in tourism basic theory and tourism philosophy, and builds a new tourist behavior reference that guides tourists to be conformed with the unitarity of society, nature and human, which finally would be dedicated to the more healthy development of tourism industry itself and the role tourism played in social life.
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