Back
 AJPS  Vol.7 No.2 , February 2016
Variation of Calcium Oxalate (CaOx) Crystals in Porang Corms (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) at Different Harvest Time
Abstract: Harvest time is assumed to potentially influence shape and size variation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals; therefore it needs to be observed microscopically. This research used porang corms from the second growing period which were planted to produce the vegetative phase of third growing period. These corms were obtained based on the harvest time had determined. The harvest time was determined, i.e. 1) at two weeks before the plants shed (R0 - 1); 2) when the plants shed (R0) and 3) at two weeks after the plants shed (R0 + 1). Slides for microscopic observation were obtained from slices on the edge and center of porang corms. Organ slices were cleared using modified clearing method. Parameters observed were the shape and the size of CaOx crystal. The variations of styloid, prism, druse and raphide crystals found in porang corms at the three harvest time were 1, 2, 3 and 37 variations respectively. The variation of CaOx crystals tended to be same in porang corms at three harvest times. The variation of these crystals tended to be static. It is also known that raphide crystal has the greatest variation amount. On the contrary, styloid crystal has the fewest variation amounts. This abundance of a number of raphide crystal variations is possibly due to its role as a defense mechanism in porang corms.
Cite this paper: Chairiyah, N. , Harijati, N. and Mastuti, R. (2016) Variation of Calcium Oxalate (CaOx) Crystals in Porang Corms (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) at Different Harvest Time. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 7, 306-315. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2016.72030.
References

[1]   Cao, H. (2003) The Distribution of Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Genus Dieffenbachia Schott. And The Relationship between Environmental Factors and Crystal Quantity and Quality. Thesis, University of Florida, Florida.

[2]   Cromack, K., Sollins, P., Graustein, W.C., Speidel, K., Todd, A.W., Spycher, G., Li, C.Y. and Todd, R.L. (1978) Calcium Oxalate Accumulation and Soil Weathering in Mats of The Hypogeous Fungus Hysterangium crassum. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 11, 463-468.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(79)90003-8

[3]   Franceschi, V.R. and Nakata, P.A. (2005) Calcium Oxalate in Plant: Formation and Function. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 56, 41-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.56.032604.144106

[4]   Ilarslan, H.R., Palmer, G., Imsande, J. and Horner, H.T. (1997) Quantitative Determination of Calcium Oxalate and Oxalate in Developing Seeds of Soybean (Leguminosae). American Journal of Botany, 84, 1042-1046.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2446147

[5]   Libert, B. and Franceschi, V.R. (1987) Oxalate in Crop Plants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 35, 926-938.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00078a019

[6]   Mazen, A.M.A., Zhang, D. and Franceschi, V.R. (2003) Calcium Oxalate Formation in Lemna Minor: Physiological and Ultrastructural Aspects of High Capacity Calcium Sequestration. New Phytologist, 161, 435-448.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.00923.x

[7]   Prychid, C.J. and Rudall, P.J. (1999) Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Monocotyledons: A Review of Their Structure and Systematics. Annals of Botany, 84, 725-739.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1999.0975

[8]   Volk, G.M., Goss, L.J. and Franceschi, V.R. (2004) Calcium Channels Are Involved in Calcium Oxalate Crystals Formation in Specialized Cells of Pistia stratiotes L. Annals of Botany, 93, 741-753.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mch092

[9]   Webb, M.C. (1999) Cell-Mediated Crystallization of Calcium Oxalate in Plants. The Plant Cell, 11, 751-761.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.11.4.751

[10]   White, P.J. and Broadley, M.R. (2009) Biofortification of Crops with Seven Mineral Elements Often Lacking in Human Diets-Iron, Zinc, Copper, Calcium, Magnesium, Selenium and Iodine (Research Review). New Phytologist, 182, 49-84.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02738.x

[11]   Kuo-Huang, L.-L., Ku, M.S.B. and Franceschi, V.R. (2007) Correlations between Calcium Oxalate Crystals and Photosynthetic Activities in Palisade Cells of Shade Adapted Peperomia glabella. Botanical Studies, 48, 155-164.

[12]   Korth, K.L., Doege, S.J., Park, S.H., Goggin, F.L., Qin Wang, Gomez, S.K., Liu, G., Jia, L. and Nakata, P.A. (2006) Medicago truncatula Mutants Demonstrate The Role of Plant Calcium Oxalate Crystals as An Effective Defense Against Chewing Insects. Plant Physiology, 141, 188-195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.106.076737

[13]   Barabe, D., Lacroix, C., Chouteau, M. and Gibernau, M. (2004) On the Presence of Extracellular Calcium Oxalate Crystals on the Inflorescences of Araceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 146, 181-190.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00318.x

[14]   Kartasapoetra, A.G. (1991) Pengantar Anatomi Tumbuh-Tumbuhan (Tentang Sel dan Jaringan). PT Rineka Cipta, Jakarta.

[15]   Pitojo, S. (2007) Suweg. Kanisius,Yogyakarta, 37-44.

[16]   Prychid, C.J., Jabaily, R.S. and Rudall, P.J. (2008) Cellular Ultra-structure and Crystal Development in Amorphophallus (Araceae). Annals of Botany, 101, 983-995.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcn022

[17]   Genua, J.M. and Hillson, C.J. (1985) The Occurrence, Type and Location of Calcium Oxalate Crystals in the Leaves of Fourteen Species of Araceae. Annals of Botany, 56, 351-361.

[18]   Grayum, M.H. (1990) Evolution and Phylogeny of the Araceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 77, 628-697.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2399668

[19]   Mayo, S.J., Bogner, J. and Boyce, P.C. (1997) The Genera of Araceae. The Trustees, Kew.

[20]   Keating, R.C. (2003) Leaf Anatomical Characters and Their Value in Understanding Morphoclines in the Araceae. The Botanical Review, 68, 510-523.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1663/0006-8101(2002)068[0510:LACATV]2.0.CO;2

[21]   Cote, G.G. (2009) Diversity and Distribution of Idioblasts Producing Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Dieffenbachia seguine (Araceae). American Journal of Botany, 96, 1245-1254.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.0800276

[22]   Cote, G.G. (2012) Distribution of Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Floral Organs of Araceae in Relation to Pollination Strategy. American Journal of Botany, 99, 1-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1100499

[23]   Chairiyah, N., Harijati, N. and Mastuti, R. (2013) Variation of Calcium Oxalate (CaOx) Crystals in Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4, 1765-1773.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2013.49217

[24]   Liu, P., Zhang, S. and Zhang, X. (1998) Research and Utilization of Amorphophallus in China. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 10, 48-61.

[25]   Chua, M.F.Y. (2011) An Investigation of The Biology and Chemistry of The Chinese Medicinal Plant, Amorphophallus konjac. Disertasi, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton.

[26]   Hamadina, E.I. (2012) Origin of Vines, Feeder Roots and Tubers in Yam (Dioscorea Spp.): The Tuber Head or The Primary Nodal Complex? Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 8, 67-72.

[27]   Çaliskan, M. (2000) the Metabolism of Oxalic Acid. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 24,103-106.

[28]   Moore, G., Sanford, P. and Wiley, T. (2006) Perennial pastures for Western Australia. Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, Bulletin 4690, Perth.

[29]   Middleton, C.H. and Barry, G.A. (1978) A Study of Oxalate Concentration in Five Grasses in the Wet Tropics of Queensland. Tropical Grasslands, 12, 28-35.

[30]   Ilarslan, H., Palmer, R.G. and Horner, H.T. (2001) Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Developing Seeds of Soybean. Annals of Botany, 88, 243-257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbo.2001.1453

[31]   Harijati, N., Chairiyah, N., Kartika, S.D. and Handayani, R. (2009) Morfologi kristal kalsium oksalat pada Amorphophallus campanulatus. Prosiding Keanekaragaman Hayati, Seminar Nasional Biologi XX dan Kongres PBI XIV UIN Maliki, Malang, 517-523.

[32]   Sakai, W.S., Hanson, M. and Jones, R.C. (1972) Raphides with Barbs and Grooves in Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Araeae). Science, 178, 314-315.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.178.4058.314

[33]   Harijati, N., Arumingtyas, E.L. and Handayani, R. (2011) Pengaruh Pemberian Kalsium Terhadap Ukuran dan Kerapatan Kristal Kalsium Oksalat pada Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri blume). Jurnal Pembangunan dan Alam Lestari, 1, 72-139.

[34]   Amalia, B.R., Harijati, N. and Mastuti, R. (2014) Pengaruh Pupuk Nitrogen Terhadap Kerapatan Kristal Kalsium Oksalat pada Umbi Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume). Natural B, 2, 271-276.

[35]   Novita, M.D.A. and Indriyani, S. (2013) Kerapatan dan Bentuk Kristal Kalsium Oksalat Umbi Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) pada Fase Pertengahan Pertumbuhan Hasil Penanaman dengan Perlakuan Pupuk P dan K. Jurnal Biotropika, 1, 66-70.

[36]   Blanchon, D.J. and Braggins, J.E. (2009) Styloid Crystals in the Genus Libertia (Iridaceae). New Zealand Journal of Botany, 47, 39-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00288250909509791

 
 
Top