Received 24 December 2015; accepted 19 February 2016; published 22 February 2016
The number of Chinese students at Japanese universities has been growing and in 2014 it reached 94,000, ranking the first among all the international students there. As literacy in English and Japanese is usually a part of requirements for international students applying for Japanese universities, Chinese studentsin Japan, like other international students whose first language is neither English nor Japanese, have to engage in learning the two foreign languages simultaneously.
Humphreys & Spratt (2008) claimed that a student’s emotional response in learning a foreign language might vary from that in learning another one. As one’s motivation is closely related to the emotion, it might be interesting to ask if a Chinese student’s motivation in learning Japanese differs from that in learning English especially when the student studies both simultaneously. Learning motivation also has much to do with the learning setting, as Li (2014) claims that studying a foreign language in a second language setting is different from that in a foreign language setting. Compared with a foreign language setting, a second language setting provides learners with more opportunities to engage in authentic communication (Dörnyei, 1990) . This is the case for Chinese students in Japan, whose opportunities to practice Japanese in authentic settings are much more than their opportunities to practice English. So it is interesting as well to enquire if the difference of the two foreign languages learning may lead to the difference in terms of learning motivation. A great deal of research effort has been put on the motivation of students in different countries to learn English (Iwaniec, 2014; Li, 2014; Kormos & Kiddle, 2013) . However, the research focusing on the differences in the motivation of a language learner who has to study two foreign languages simultaneously is scare.
2. Literature Review
According to Dörnyei (2001) , motivation accounts for why second language learners begin to study foreign languages, how long they can keep studying foreign languages and how much efforts they take in studying foreign languages. Language learning motivation consists of language learning goals, the L2 Motivational Self System, some constructs concerning the nature of language learning motivation and the constructs that are related to sustaining learning activities (Iwaniec, 2014) .
Language learning goals refer to integrative orientation, instrumentality, knowledge orientation and international orientation (Iwaniec, 2014) . Gardner (2006) makes a distinction between instrumental and integrative goals. Gardner (2006) proposes that instrumentality refers to the practical value of using one foreign language and that integrative orientation means the willingness of learners to integrate themselves into the target language community. Clement & Kruidenier (1983) claims that language learning goals are affected by different language learning contexts. They discover that instrumentality is more crucial for learners of English who acquire English in a foreign language learning context than those in a second language learning milieu. Furthermore, for Chinese learners of English, integrative orientation may exert no influence on the efforts they take on language learning (Chen et al., 2005) . Similarly, Japanese learners of English seem to question the role of integrative orientation and regarded instrumentality as the most important language learning goal (Yashima, 2000) .
According to Csizer & Kormos (2009), knowledge orientation means the willingness of language learners to acquire more knowledge about a foreign language. On the other hand, with the advancement of globalization, English is widely used in the world. International posture, a new goal of learning one foreign language, emerges under such circumstance. According to Yashima (2002) , international orientation can be defined as the interest to engage in foreign activities, such as studying overseas. International orientation has been studied in previous research projects. For instance, Lamb’s (2012) project discovers that international orientation is more important for Indonesian students than knowledge orientation.
The L2 Motivational Self System is a crucial part in the language learning motivation framework (Dörnyei, 2005) . Dörnyei (2005) concludes that the Idea L2 Self, Ought-to L2 Self and L2 experience comprise the L2 Motivational Self System. Ryan (2009) discovers that the idea L2 self, which means how learners image what their language proficiency would be like in the future, can enhance the motivation of second language learners. Li (2014) concludes that the Ideal L2 Self is closely related to integrative orientation. The ought-to L2 self refers to the qualities that learners think they should have (Iwaniec, 2014) . According to Dörnyei (2009), L2 Learning Experience focuses on the immediate influence of language learning environment, such as the experience of success and the role of the teacher. According to Dörnyei (2009), L2 Learning Experience focuses on the immediate influence of language learning environment, such as the experience of success and the role of the teacher. Most previous research has verified that the role of the L2 Motivational Self System varies in different contexts (Taguchi et al., 2009; Lamb, 2012) . For instance, Taguchi et al. (2009) substantiates that the effect of the L2 Motivational Self System in Asia is more salient than that in Europe.
There are also several external constructs, the roles of parents, peers and language teachers, in language learning motivation. Garden (1985) emphasizes the positive influence of parental encouragement on the motivation of language learners. Iwaniec (2014) suggests that parents who support foreign language learning would positively affect their children’s language learning. Kormos & Kiddle (2013) concludes that students’ language learning would be facilitated if their teachers can provide informative and enlightening information and feedback to them. However, based on previous studies, the role of peers is controversial (Lamb, 2012; Kyriacou & Zhu, 2008) . Lamb (2012) discovers the influence of peers would promote the learning motivation of learners, whereas Kyriacou & Zhu (2008) indicate that the role of peers is limited among Chinese learners of English. Specific language learning contexts might either strengthen or debilitate the roles of the above-mentioned external constructs in language learning motivation. In this study, the language learning context is specified in Japan. The study participants were Chinese learners of English and Japanese living in Japan, but most of the participants’ parents were not in Japan. Their language teachers and Chinese peers in Japan were influential in their lives. Under such circumstance, the roles of their parents, peers and teachers might not be the same as those found in previous studies. The present study, therefore, intends to reexamine the roles of parents, peers and teachers in language learning motivation.
There are also other crucial elements in language learning motivation, such as self-efficacy beliefs, anxiety and self-regulation (Iwaniec, 2014) . Self-efficacy beliefs can be defined as how well a language learner perceives he or she can finish a task (Bandura, 1997) . Magogwe & Oliver (2007) claims that students’ self-efficacy beliefs could either facilitate their foreign language acquisition or debilitate their competency of acquiring a foreign language. However, the negative role of anxiety in language learning has been verified. Anxiety is negatively correlated with learners’ self-efficacy beliefs (Cheng et al., 1999) . Self-regulation refers to the degree to which language learners can manage and control their learning process (Zimmerman, 2002) . Zimmerman (2002) suggests that students who can self-regulate themselves could promote their language learning process (Riding & Rayner, 1998) . Iwaniec (2014) claims that motivated behaviors, intrinsic motivation and the ideal L2 self could affect Poland students’ self-regulation of learning English. However, the self-regulation of Chinese learners of English has not been studies yet. Kormos & Kiddle (2013) concluded self-regulation strategies are highly related to social and contextual factors. Facing different social and contextual factors, Chinese learners of English and Japanese in Japan might demonstrate distinctions in their self-regulation of acquiring English and Japanese respectively. Therefore, the present study aims at discovering the possible distinctions.
Previous studies have been conducted to discover the motivation properties of learners of English in a foreign language context or to compare the differences in the motivation properties of learners of English in foreign and second language contexts ( Iwaniec, 2014; Li, 2014 ; Humphrey & Spratt, 2008). Iwaniec (2014) concludes that knowledge orientation, international orientation and instrumental orientation are important language learning motivational properties. Furthermore, Li (2014) claims that the Chinese learners of English in a second language context would take more efforts in learning English, regard themselves as proficient users of English, and have more positive attitudes toward learning English than their counterparts in a foreign language context. What is more, Humphreys & Spratt (2008) discovers learners of various foreign languages might differ in their motivations of learning each foreign language, and they observe that English and Putonghua are regarded as having a greater instrumental value than other foreign languages. Humphreys & Spratt (2008) also suggests that English and the chosen languages are more popular among Hong Kong students than Putonghua.
For the purpose of discovering how L2 motivation differs between learners in different language learning contexts, comparative studies should be conducted with foreign language learners from the same cultural background (Li, 2014) . Although Humphreys & Spratt (2008) students in Hong Kong might have distinct motivations of learning different foreign languages, those students were studying just only one foreign language when the study was conducted. Against the background of globalization, however, students are required to learn two foreign languages simultaneously to be more competitive. For the Chinese students in Japan, they study Japanese in a second language context, while they acquire English in a foreign language context. Whether there are differences in their language motivation properties between learning English and Japanese remains unanswered. Therefore, the present study asks the following two research questions.
1) Do Chinese students in Japan who have to study both Japanese and English simultaneously differ in their motivations of learning the two languages?
2) Which factors are related to self-regulation of Chinese learners of Japanese and English respectively in Japan?
46 Chinese students who studied in Japan for at least one year participated in the research, when they were preparing for the Examination for Japanese University Admission for International Students (EJU) and TOEFL as well. Table 1 includes their gender, age, native place and language learning background.
A questionnaire was developed on the basis of Iwaniec’s (2014) version. It consists of seventy one questions in total, covering crucial elements in Japanese and English learning motivations, such as Idea L2 self, international orientation, self-efficacy beliefs, instrumentality, intrinsic motivation, motivated behavior, anxiety, self regulation, learning experience, peer pressure, parental encouragement, the role of teachers. All the subjects were required to mark each statement in a five-point Likert scale. For instance, a participant marked 5 if he or she agreed with the statement very much, and the participant marked 1 if he or she totally disagreed with a statement. All questions were in Chinese to ensure the accurate comprehension of the participants.
Participants were first informed of the research purpose and then given the instructions on how to complete the questionnaire within 30 minutes allowed. Each item of question required them to rate both their Japanese and English learning motivations. Their ratings were then processed by Independent Sample t-Test and Regression Analysis in SPSS 20.0.
4.1. Research Question One
The result indicates notable distinctions in the motivations behind English and Japanese learning. As Table 2 shows, five out of the twelve elements in language learning motivation, such as Idea L2 self, self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, language anxiety, self-regulation, and peer pressure, differed statistically (p < .05).
In Japanese learning, the subjects had better idea L2 self with higher self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation.
Table 1. Characteristics of participants.
Furthermore, they were more likely to be affected by peer pressure (see Table 2). These findings suggest that their motivation behind Japanese learning should be higher than that behind English learning. The result also indicates higher level of anxiety with English learning among the subjects (p < .05). Other elements in language learning motivation, such as international orientation, instrumentality, motivated behavior, self-regulation, parental encouragement, learning experience and the role of teachers, demonstrate no difference (p > .05).
4.2. Research Question Two
Regarding to the factors affecting the self-regulation of studying Japanese and English respectively, the results of regression analysis revealed that the idea L2 self, intrinsic motivation, motivated behavior and language anxiety could be the best predictors of self-regulation of Chinese who learn Japanese in Japan (see Table 3); In contrast, motivated behavior and the role of teachers were related to self-regulation of Chinese learners of English in a Japanese context (see Table 4).
Table 2. Differences in the motivations of studying Japanese and English.
**p < .005.
Table 3. Variables influencing the self-regulation of studying Japanese.
**p < .005.
Table 4. Variables influencing the self-regulation of studying English.
**p < .005.
5.1. Why There Were Different Motivations
5.1.1. Different Language Goals
The results suggest the Chinese subjects have a higher level motivation in learning Japanese than that in learning English. My research results also seem to support Humphreys & Spratt’s (2008) view that language learners may have different patterns of motivation in learning different foreign languages. As indicated by the results, the participants had better idea L2 self for Japanese learning while they were more likely to see English as an instrument. The difference in motivation might be due to the different roles Japanese and English play in their education. In most cases, their Japanese proficiency may affect the chance of being admitted by one of Japan’s top-ranking universities. More importantly, the proficiency also determines their learning efficiency and effectiveness at Japanese universities because Japanese is more often than not used as class instruction language. In contrast, they learn English only to achieve a certain reasonable level in TOEFL test required by many Japanese universities. In this sense, English is not as demanding as Japanese.
5.1.2. Different Language Learning Experiences
Participants’ past language learning experiences also contributed to their difference in motivation of studying English and Japanese. The frustrations they had suffered from English learning caused anxiety and reluctance on their part accompanied by being lack of confidence in English learning. This is not the case in their Japanese learning. As beginners of Japanese, they have not experienced any frustrations yet. Moreover, they take positive attitudes towards the language and the culture. These positive emotional and attitudinal factors led to higher level of intrinsic motivation behind their learning. Compared to English learning, their Japanese learning is characterized with longer concentration time span and more adept self-regulation. As a result, more achievements in Japanese learning were made, which in turn led to higher self-efficacy.
5.1.3. A New Language Learning Environment
The Chinese participants in my study studied English and Japanese simultaneously in a Japanese context. They more often than not studied Japanese together with their Chinese peers, which verifies the role of peer effect. However, they do not learn English in peer’s company.
5.2. Why There Were Different Factors Affecting Self-Regulation
As mentioned previously, self-regulation serves a crucial role in initiating the learning process and achieving the goals. It is of necessity to pin down what elements in language learning motivation are correlated with self-regu- lation. My regression analysis suggested that idea L2 self, intrinsic motivation, motivated behavior and language anxiety could affect the students’ self-regulation of studying Japanese，while motivated behavior and the role of teachers are related to their self-regulation of learning English. This finding partly contrasts with Iwaniec’s (2014) study. Iwaniec (2014) concluded that motivated behavior, intrinsic motivation and the idea L2 self could affect Poland students’ self-regulation of learning English. Clement & Kruidenier (1983) suggested that the linguistic milieu might affect learners’ language learning motivation. Self-regulation is a crucial component in language learning motivation. Therefore, the differences in the results of these two studies could be explained by the fact that the self-regulation of language learners would be affected by the language environment in which they are.
In my study, the Chinese participants’ self-regulation of English study could be predicted by the role of teachers. Chinese students in Japan would encounter various difficulties in learning English. Lacking of English learning tutorials, past unpleasant English study experiences and failing to manage their time to study two foreign languages simultaneously could be possible factors contributing to their relatively low English learning motivation. The majority of the participants in my study complained that they needed more English learning tutorials when preparing all kinds of English proficiency tests in Japan. They claimed that the English teachers who can speak Chinese would facilitate their English learning and that they would be more self-regulated if English teachers could guide them to acquire English.
The finding in my study also suggested intrinsic motivation is correlated with the Chinese participants’ self-regulation of learning English, which is in line with the finding of Iwaniec’s (2014) study. However, Iwaniec (2014) suggested the participants in his study could derive pleasure in the process of learning English, which explained the correlation between self-regulation and intrinsic motivation. This analysis could not be used to explain the finding of the present study. Most participants in my sample grumbled that their past English learning experiences were unpleasant. Positive attitudes, capability and self-determination are closely related to intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985) . Although the Chinese participants in my study had negative attitudes toward English study, they understood the role of English in their future lives. Therefore, they had to use their self-determination to self-regulate themselves in the process of learning English.
The present study discovered that idea L2 self, intrinsic motivation, motivated behavior and language anxiety could affect the students’ self-regulation of studying Japanese. Learners’ experience is crucial when deciding whether to begin the learning activity. The finding of the study demonstrated that the Chinese students in Japan have higher motivation when learning Japanese, which indicated that most of the Chinese participants in this study had positive attitudes toward Japanese learning. Their positive attitudes might contribute to their relatively high intrinsic motivation. So, they could adopt effective motivated behaviors to self-regulate their Japanese study. According to the results, the mean score of the anxiety of learning Japanese was lower than that of learning English. Feeling less anxious, the participants could investigate more energy to study Japanese and self-re- gulate themselves effectively. Furthermore, their positive attitudes toward Japanese study and the determination to learn Japanese could explain why they imaged how proficient they would be in learning Japanese. Stimulated by the idea-L2-self images, they could better self-regulate their Japanese study.
Further studies should invite more participants and focus on the changes in the Chinese students’ motivations of learning English and Japanese after they are enrolled into universities in Japan.
5.3. Pedagogical Implications
With the implementation of the G30 plan in Japan, more oversea students who are proficient in English but poor in Japanese are admitted to Japanese universities. Meanwhile, for being admitted to first-ranking Japanese universities, oversea students who are proficient in Japanese but poor in English have to take TOEFL or TOEIC in Japan. Both of these two groups of students would encounter tremendous pressures because they have to finish their studies, adapt to the new environment and study at least two foreign languages simultaneously. It is necessary for foreign language teachers to employ different motivating methods to facilitate students’ learning of different foreign languages and take students’ past learning experiences into account. Foreign language schools and universities in Japan could devise unique curriculums for foreign students to achieve their different goals. For instance, for the students who have to take TOEFL or TOEIC, specific test preparation courses should be offered, while for those students who do not need to take standardized English tests, the course aiming at improving their oral English competency should be offered Further studies should focus on the changes in the Chinese students’ motivations of learning English and Japanese after they are enrolled into universities in Japan, which is of great practical importance. It is worth noticing that Chinese students in Japan would change their attitudes toward English learning as their might have more challenging personal dreams, such as furthering their study in America in the near future. Under this circumstance, their motivations of learning English and Japanese might be changed dramatically.
The study investigated whether Chinese students in Japan who have to study both Japanese and English simultaneously differ in their motivations of learning the two languages respectively. Furthermore, it discovered different elements affecting their self-regulation of studying Japanese and English. The findings suggested Chinese students in Japan are more interested in studying Japanese compared to studying English. Furthermore, according to Independent Sample t-Test, their language learning motivations differed statistically in the factors like idea L2 self, self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic motivation, language anxiety, and peer pressure when studying English and Japanese respectively. Regression analysis discovered that idea L2 self, intrinsic motivation, motivated behavior and language anxiety could predict Chinese students’ self-regulation of studying Japanese. By contrast, motivated behavior and the role of teachers are related to their self-regulation of learning English.
Idea L2 Self
I often imagine I can use Japanese/English in my future job.
I often imagine I can use Japanese/English in my future life.
I often imagine I can speak Japanese/English fluently in the future.
I often imagine I can write emails in Japanese/English.
I often imagine I can read Japanese/English passages.
I often imagine I can understand Japanese/English TV programs.
I try to learn Japanese/English to know more foreigners.
I try to learn Japanese/English for understanding foreign cultures.
I try to learn Japanese/English to communicate with Japanese/English native speakers.
I try to learn Japanese/English for integrating myself into their communities.
The importance of Japanese/English stimulates me to learn Japanese/English.
I am pretty sure I can use Japanese/English proficiently in my future job.
I am pretty sure I can use Japanese/English to express my opinions.
I am pretty sure I can understand Japanese/English TV programs and films.
I am pretty sure I can write my opinions in Japanese/English.
I am pretty sure I can read Japanese/English newspapers.
I learn Japanese/English to improve my competitiveness in China.
I learn Japanese/English for being employed by a transnational enterprise.
I learn Japanese/English for travelling abroad.
I learn Japanese/English to get a promotion.
I learn Japanese/English for performing well in all standardized language proficiency tests.
I learn Japanese/English for living in Japan or English speaking countries.
I learn Japanese/English out of my own interest.
I want to acquire Japanese/English fluently.
I feel satisfied if I can use Japanese/English to solve problems.
I do enjoy the process of learning Japanese/English.
I want to understand the meaning of those unknown Japanese/English words.
I am satisfied with my improvements in learning Japanese/English.
I always endeavor to learn Japanese/English.
I always finish my Japanese/English assignments in time.
I try my best to learn Japanese/English every day.
I enjoy finishing my Japanese/English assignments.
I can fully concentrate on my Japanese/English classes.
I always answer the questions raised by my Japanese/English teachers.
Language Learning Anxiety
I do feel nervous if I am required to answer questions in Japanese/English.
I do feel nervous in my Japanese/English classes even if I have prepared well.
I always feel nervous about the results of my Japanese/English tests.
Compared to other subjects, I feel more nervous in my Japanese/English classes.
I am afraid of being mocked by other classmates about my Japanese/English proficiency.
I feel nervous when I speak Japanese/English.
I can always solve the problems in the process of studying Japanese/English.
I can always turn to my classmates or teachers for help if I have some problems in learning Japanese/English.
I can always seize every chance to practice my Japanese/English.
I always try my best to memorize Japanese/English vocabularies.
I can always enhance my Japanese/English study efficiency.
I can provide myself with a better Japanese/English study environment.
I will endeavor to study Japanese/English well to achieve my goals.
My past experiences facilitate my Japanese/English study.
I did enjoy the atmosphere in my past Japanese/English classes.
I enjoyed learning Japanese/English when I was young.
I felt happy when I was in my Japanese/English classes.
I hoped there would be more Japanese/English classes.
I was interested in the Japanese/English cultures when I was a child.
My friends think that it is important to learn Japanese/English.
My friends think that being proficient in Japanese/English is a symbol of well-educated.
My friends think being proficient in Japanese/English is glorious.
My friends always encourage me to learn Japanese/English diligently.
I am always affected positively when my friends learn Japanese/English diligently.
My best friends acquire Japanese/English proficiently, so I want to be as excellent as them.
My parents think that it is important to learn Japanese/English.
My parents think being proficient in Japanese/English is a symbol of well-educated.
My parents are willing to pay extra fees to improve my Japanese/English proficiency.
My parents always care about my Japanese/English study.
My parents always try their best to better my Japanese/English study environment.
My parents acquire Japanese/English proficiently, so I want be as excellent as them.
The Role of Teachers
My teachers think that it is important to learn Japanese/English.
My teachers always encourage me to learn Japanese/English diligently.
I am always stimulated by my Japanese/English teachers who adopt a vivid teaching style.
I learn Japanese/English actively if I admire my Japanese/English teachers.
If I am touched by the inspiring experiences of my Japanese/English teachers, I will study Japanese/English diligently.
If my Japanese/English teachers are responsible, I will study Japanese/English diligently.
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