Load Static Models for Conservation Voltage Reduction in the Presence of Harmonics
Abstract: The Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is a technique that aims to achieve the decrease of power consumption as a result of voltage reduction. The customer is supplied with the lowest possible voltage level compatible with the stipulated level by the regulatory agency. International Standards ANSI C84.1-2006 and IEEE std 1250-1995 specify the range of supply voltage to electronics equipment from 0.9 to 1.05 pu of nominal voltage. To analyse the CVR effect in distribution systems with different load characteristics (residential, commercial, industrial or a combination of these), mathematical load models are used. Typically, these equipment/load models are used to analyse load aggregation without any consideration of its nonlinearity characteristics. Aiming to analyse the nonlinear characteristics and its consequences, this paper presents a discussion of the neglected variables as well as the results of a set of measurements of nonlinear loads. Different mathematical models are applied to obtain them for each load. Using these models the load aggregation is evaluated. It is presented that although the models show adequate results for individual loads, the same does not occur for aggregated models if the harmonic contribution is not considered. Consequently, to apply the load model in CVR it is necessary to consider the harmonics presence and the model has to be done using only the fundamental frequency data. The discussion about the causes is done and the models are compared with the measurements.
Cite this paper: Caetano, W. and Silva Jota, P. (2016) Load Static Models for Conservation Voltage Reduction in the Presence of Harmonics. Energy and Power Engineering, 8, 62-75. doi: 10.4236/epe.2016.82006.
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