Back
 MSA  Vol.7 No.1 , January 2016
Emerging Trends in Automotive Lightweighting through Novel Composite Materials
Abstract: Owing to unprecedented climate change issues in recent times, global automotive industry is striving hard in developing novel functional materials to improve vehicle’s fuel efficiency. It is believed that more than a quarter of all combined greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are associated with road transport vehicles. All these facts in association with heightened consumer awareness and energy security issues have led to automotive lightweighting as a major research theme across the globe. Almost all North American and European original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) related to automotive industry have chalked out ambitious weight reduction plans in response to stricter environmental regulations. This review entails main motives and current legislation which has prompted major OEMs to have drastic measures in bringing down vehicle weight to suggested limits. Also discussed are recent advances in developing advanced composites, and cellulose-enabled light weight automotive composites with special focus on research efforts of Center for Biocomposites and Biomaterials Processing (CBBP), University of Toronto, Canada.
Cite this paper: Pervaiz, M. , Panthapulakkal, S. , KC, B. , Sain, M. and Tjong, J. (2016) Emerging Trends in Automotive Lightweighting through Novel Composite Materials. Materials Sciences and Applications, 7, 26-38. doi: 10.4236/msa.2016.71004.
References

[1]   Hill, K., Menk, D. and Cregger, J. (2015) Contribution of the Automotive Industry to the Economies of All Fifty States and the United States. Center for Automotive Research, Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers Washington DC.

[2]   EPA (2013) Transportation Sector Emissions; Emissions and Trends.
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/sources/transportation.html

[3]   Boden, T.A., Marland, G. and Andres, R.G. (2010) Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/cdiac/00001_v2010

[4]   White House Fact Sheet (2014) Office of the Press Secretary. U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change and Clean Energy Cooperation. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/11/11/fact-sheet-us-china-joint-announcement-climate-change-and-clean-energy-c

[5]   EPA (2015) Proposed Rulemaking: Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles.
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/regs-heavy-duty.htm

[6]   WH.Gov. (2014) Kicking Vehicle Efficiency into High Gear. The White House Blog. https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2014/02/18/kicking-vehicle-efficiency-high-gear

[7]   DOE, VTO (2013) Vehicle Technologies Office: Lightweight Materials R&D Annual Progress Report.
http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/downloads/vehicle-technologies-office-2013-lightweight-materials-rd-annual-progress

[8]   Cheah, L.W. (2010) Cars on a Diet: The Material and Energy Impacts of Passenger Vehicle Weight Reduction in the U.S. PhD Thesis, The Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

[9]   DOE, VTO (2015) Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials Technologies. Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy.
http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/vehicle-technologies-office-materials-technologies

[10]   NIST (2014) Energy Advantages of Shedding Weight. Center for Automotive Lightweighting.
http://www.nist.gov/lightweighting/ncalfeature.cfm

[11]   Geck, P.E. (2014) Automotive Lightweighting Using Advanced High-Strength Steels. SAE International, Warrendale.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/r-431

[12]   Das, S. (2011) Life Cycle Assessment of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 16, 268-282.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11367-011-0264-z

[13]   Car Makers Increase Their Use of Composites. Reinforced Plastics, February 2004. www.reinforcedplastics.com

[14]   Lightweighting the Automotive Market. Reinforced Plastics, February/March 2009. www.reinforcedplastics.com

[15]   Ahmad, F., Choi, H.S. and Park, M.K. (2015) A Review: Natural Fiber Composites Selection in View of Mechanical, Light Weight, and Economic Properties. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 300, 10-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mame.201400089

[16]   Markets and Markets (2014) Lightweight Materials Market by Type (Composites, Metals, Plastics), Application (Automotive, Aviation, Marine, Wind Energy)—Global Trends & Forecast to 2019. Report Buyer, UK.

[17]   Holmes, M. (2014) Demand for Lightweight Automotive Materials in North America to Continue to Rise. Reinforced Plastics News, June 2014.
http://www.materialstoday.com/composite-applications/news/demand-for-lightweight-automotive-materials-in/

[18]   KPMG (2013) KPMG’s Global Automotive Executive Survey, Pub No. 121249.

[19]   Composite Developments Drive Auto Industry Forward. Reinforced Plastics, May/June 2014. www.reinforcedplastics.com

[20]   Shankar, V. (2013) Global Automotive OEMs Embrace Lightweighting to Attain Fuel Economy and Emission Goals. Frost & Sullivan Market Report.
http://www.frost.com/sublib/display-market-insight.do?id=279328612&ctxixpLink=FcmCtx1&ctxixpLabel=FcmCtx2

[21]   Nehuis, F., Kleemann, S. and Egede, P. (2014) Future Trends in the Development of Vehicle Bodies Regarding Lightweight and Cost. In: Bajpai, R.P., et al., Eds., Innovative Design, Analysis and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering, Springer, New Delhi, 13-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-1871-5_3

[22]   Brookbank, P., Savage, L. and Evans, K.E. (2015) Economical Carbon and Cellulosic Sheet Moulding Compounds for Semi- and Non-Structural Applications. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 34, 437-453.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0731684415572437

[23]   Fua, S.Y., Laukeb, B. and Maderb, E. (2000) Tensile Properties of Short-Glass-Fiber- and Short-Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites. Composites: Part A, 31, 1117-1125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-835X(00)00068-3

[24]   Zhang, J., Chaisombat, K. and He, S. (2012) Hybrid Composite Laminates Reinforced with Glass/Carbon Woven Fabrics for Lightweight Load Bearing Structures. Materials and Design, 36, 75-80.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.11.006

[25]   Composites World. Hybrid Carbon Fiber/Glass Fiber Reinforcement. Posted on 17 Feb, 2014.
http://www.compositesworld.com/products/hybrid-carbon-fiberglass-fiber-reinforcement

[26]   Quantum Composites. Quantum Composites Launches First Hybrid Carbon Fiber Material. Feb. 2014.
http://www.quantumcomposites.com/

[27]   Sloan, J. (2015) IACMI Consortium Formally Launched in Tennessee. Industry News; Composites World, Posted 22 June, 2015.
http://www.compositesworld.com/news/iacmi-consortium-formally-launched-in-tennessee

[28]   Khanna, V. and Bakshi, B. (2009) Carbon Nanofiber Polymer Composites: Evaluation of Life Cycle Energy Use. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 2078-2084.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es802101x

[29]   Friedfeld, B. (2007) Cost Assessment of Lignin- and PAN-Based Precursor for Low-Cost Carbon Fiber. Presentation for the Automotive Composites Consortium, 17 January 2007.

[30]   US Drive (2015) Highlights of Technical Accomplishments 2014; Overview.
http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2015/04/f21/2014%20U.S.%20DRIVE%20Accomplishments%20Report.pdf

[31]   Birat, K.C., Panthapulakkal, S., Kronka, A., Agnelli, J.A.M., Tjong, J. and Sain, M. (2015) Hybrid Biocomposites with Enhanced Thermal and Mechanical Properties for Structural Applications. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.42452

[32]   Panthapulakkal, S., Law, S. and Sain, M. (2006) Performance of Injection Molded Natural Fiber-Hybrid Thermoplastic Composites for Automotive Structural Applications. SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-0004

[33]   Pervaiz, M. and Sain, M. (2004) High Performance Natural Fiber Thermoplastics for Automotive Interior Parts. Proceedings of the SAE 2004 World Congress & Exhibition, Detroit, 8-11 March 2004, SAE Technical Report No. 2004-01-0729.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-0729

[34]   Pervaiz, M., Oakley, P. and Sain, M. (2014) Development of Novel Wax-Enabled Thermoplastic Starch Blends and Their Morphological, Thermal and Environmental Properties. International Journal of Composite Materials, 4, 204- 212.

[35]   Awal, A. and Sain, M. (2013) Characterization of Soda Hardwood Lignin and the Formation of Lignin Fibers by Melt Spinning. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 129, 2765-2771.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.38911

[36]   Thunga, M., Chen, K. and Grewell, D. (2014) Bio-Renewable Precursor Fibers from Lignin/Polylactide Blends for Conversion to Carbon Fibers. Carbon, 68, 159-166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.10.075

[37]   Maradur, S.P., Kimb, C.H. and Kimb, S.Y. (2012) Preparation of Carbon Fibers from a Lignin Copolymer with Polyacrylonitrile. Synthetic Metals, 162, 453-459.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2012.01.017

[38]   Pervaiz, M. and Sain, M. (2015) Recycling of Paper Mill Biosolids: A Review on Current Practices and Emerging Biorefinery Initiatives. CLEAN—Soil, Air, Water, 43, 919-926.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clen.201400590

[39]   Carbon Fibre and Cars—2013 in Review. Reinforced Plastics January 2014.
http://www.materialstoday.com/carbon-fiber/features/carbon-fibre-and-cars-2013-in-review/

[40]   Gardiner, G. (2014) Recycled Carbon Fiber Update: Closing the CFRP Lifecycle Loop. Composites World, 30 November 2014.
http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/recycled-carbon-fiber-update-closing-the-cfrp-lifecycle-loop

[41]   Caliendo, H. (2015) New Bill Requests Study on Carbon Fiber Recycling. Industry News, Composites World, 22 June 2015.
http://www.compositesworld.com/news/new-bill-requests-study-on-carbon-fiber-recycling-

[42]   BMW Press Club Global (2015) https://www.press.bmwgroup.com/global/startpage.html.

[43]   SGL. RECAFIL? Recycled Carbon Fibers. https://www.sglgroup.com/cms/international/products/product-groups/cf/recafil/index.html?__locale=en

[44]   Sain, M., Panthapulakkal, S. and Law, S. (2014) Manufacturing Process for High Performance Short Lingo-Cellulsoic Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Materials. US Patent 8,852,488.

[45]   Sain, M., Panthapulakkal, S. and Law, S. (2014) Manufacturing Process for High Performance Lignocellulosic Fibre Composite Materials. Canadian Patent CA 2527325.

[46]   Mohini, S., Panthapulakkal, S. and Law, S. (2014) Manufacturing Process for Hybrid Organic and Inorganic Fibre Filled Composite Materials. US Patent 8,940,132; Canadian Patent CA 250349.

[47]   E-News Letter (2014) American Process Inc. Announces Partnership to Develop Ultra-Strong, Lightweight Automotive Components Using Nanocellulose.
http://www.tappi.org/content/enewsletters/ahead/2014/issues/2014-11-26.html

 
 
Top