Back
 IJCM  Vol.7 No.1 , January 2016
External Ventricular Drainage Infections Rates: Clinic Experiences
Abstract: In this study, we aimed to evaluate patients who develop ventriculostomy requirements and to evaluate the external ventricular drainage infection rates retrospectively at our clinic. In the study, dates between January 2012 and 2014, patients who were inserted external ventricular drainage with different indications were examined retrospectively. By using the medical record system, patients’ demographics (age, sex), diagnostic, ventriculostomy indications and ventriculostomy time had been reached. By accessing laboratory data, the patients’ cultures of cerebrospinal fluids biochemical tests were analyzed retrospectively. Within the period of the study, 20 in 117 patients with external ventricular drainage were not included the study because of shunt infection and shunt occlusion of extracted patients. During the treatment period 148 EVD were inserted to 97 patients. The number of male patients was 53; the number of female patients was 44. When the reason of the examined patients’ using external ventricular drainage was analyzed, 55% hemorrhagic cerebrovascular diseases, (subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebellar hemorrhage, traumatic intracranial injury), 24.7% tumor induced use, 7.4% central nervous system infections (menengitis, apse), and 12.4% occlusive cerebrovascular diseases (hydrocephalus or brain edema that were developed after the infarct) were seen. During the course of our study, 23% of the surveyed 97 patients had leukocytosis. CFT culture of 12 patients found positive. In CFT cultures mostly coagulase-negative staphylococcus growth took place. Eventually, when we compare our infection proportions to the international literature, very large differences were not observed. Except for revisioned patients, no other criteria were found that increased the rate of infection. We think that a rigorous pre-operative preparation and a regular maintenance of external ventricular drainage may reduce the rate of infection.
Cite this paper: Çevik, S. , Soyalp, C. , Akkaya, E. , Kitis, S. and Hanımoğlu, H. (2016) External Ventricular Drainage Infections Rates: Clinic Experiences. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 7, 84-88. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.71007.
References

[1]   Bader, M.K., Littlejohns, L. and Palmer, S. (1995) Ventriculostomy and Intra Cranial Pressure Monitoring: In Search of a 0% Infection Rate. Heart & Lung, 24, 166-172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0147-9563(05)80012-3

[2]   Muralidharan, R. (2015) External Ventricular Drains: Management and Complications. Surgical Neurology International, 25, 271-274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2152-7806.157620

[3]   Arabi, Y., Memish, Z.A., Balkhy, H.H., Francis, C., Ferayan, A., Al Shimemeri, A., et al. (2005) Ventriculostomy Associated Infections: Incidence and Risk Factors. American Journal of Infection Control, 33, 137-143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2004.11.008

[4]   Chi, H., Chang, K.-Y., Chang, H.C., Chiu, N.C. and Huang, F.Y. (2010) Infections Associated with Indwelling Ventriculostomy Catheter in a Teaching Hospital. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 14, e216-e219.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2009.04.006

[5]   Hoefnagel, D., Dammers, R., Ter Laak-Poort, M.P. and Avezaat, C.J. (2008) Risk Factors for Infections Related to External Ventricular Drainage. Acta Neurochirurgica (Wien), 150, 209-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-007-1458-9

[6]   Lozier, A.P., Sciacca, R.R., Romagnoli, M.F. and Connolly Jr., E.S. (2002) Ventriculostomy-Related Infections: A Critical Review of the Literature. Neurosurgery, 51, 170-181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006123-200207000-00024

[7]   Martinez, E., Rello, J. and Coll, P. (1994) Clinicaldiagnosis of Ventriculostomy-Related Infections. Lancet, 344, 1015-1016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(94)91671-3

[8]   Park, P., Garton, H.J., Kocan, M.J. and Thompson, B.G. (2004) Risk of Infection with Prolonged Ventricular Catheterization. Neurosurgery, 55, 594-599.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000134289.04500.EE

 
 
Top