Back
 Health  Vol.8 No.2 , January 2016
The Effect of Circuit Training on Resting Heart Rate Variability, Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Adults
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of circuit training (CT) on resting heart rate variability (HRV) and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as blood lipids and blood glucose and on fitness components. Twenty-four healthy untrained adults (age 26.5 ± 5.1 years; height 1.67 ± 8.4 m; weight 66.8 ± 15.1 kg; 26.3% ± 5.2%; maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) 48.5 ± 10.0 ml.kg-1.min-1) were assigned to either CT (n = 12) involving bodyweight exercises, or control (CON, n = 12) groups. Prior to the start and following the end of the six-week training period, time-, frequency-domain and nonlinear measures of resting HRV, arterial blood pressure, body composition, fasting blood lipids, lipoproteins and glucose, VO2max, upper body muscular endurance (UBME) and abdominal and hip flexor (AHFME), back strength (BS) and handgrip were assessed. None of the resting HRV measures (P > 0.05) were affected by the CT intervention. However, diastolic blood pressure decreased (P = 0.03), lean body weight (P = 0.03) increased, VO2max (P = 0.03), UBME (P = 0.001), AHFME (P = 0.04), and BS (P = 0.03) were significantly higher following CT, whereas the other variables were not influenced by the CT. Six-week of CT involving bodyweight exercises has no significant impact on resting HRV. However, this type of training might decrease the risk for development of CVD by reducing arterial blood pressure and by improving body composition, aerobic capacity, muscular endurance and strength.
Cite this paper: Vrachimis, A. , Hadjicharalambous, M. and Tyler, C. (2016) The Effect of Circuit Training on Resting Heart Rate Variability, Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Adults. Health, 8, 144-155. doi: 10.4236/health.2016.82017.
References

[1]   WHO (2012) Cardiovascular Diseases. World Health Organization, Geneva.
http://www.who.int/

[2]   Molgaard, H., Sorensen, K.E. and Bjerregaard, P. (1991) Attenuated 24-h Heart Rate Variability in Apparently Healthy Subsequently Suffering Sudden Cardiac Death. Clinical Autonomic Research, 1, 233-237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01824992

[3]   Tsuji, H., Venditti Jr., F.J., Manders, E.S., Evans, J.C., Larson, M.G. and Feldman, C.L., et al. (1994) Reduced Heart Rate Variability and Mortality Risk in an Elderly Cohort. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation, 90, 878-883.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.90.2.878

[4]   Liao, D., Sloan, R.P., Cascio, W.E., Folsom, A.R., Liese, A.D., Evans, G.W., et al. (1998) Multiple Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Lower Heart Rate Variability. Diabetes Care, 21, 2116-2122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.21.12.2116

[5]   Achten, J. and Jeukendrup, A.E. (2003) Heart Rate Monitoring Applications and Limitations. Sports Medicine, 33, 517-538.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333070-00004

[6]   Kuusela, T.A., Jartti, T.T., Tahvanainen, K.U. and Kaila, T.J. (2002) Nonlinear Methods of Biosignal Analysis in Assessing Terbutaline-Induced Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Changes. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 282, H773-H783.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00559.2001

[7]   Tsuji, H., Larson, M.G., Venditti Jr., F.J., Manders, E.S., Evans, J.C., Feldman, C.L., et al. (1996) Impact of Reduced Heart Rate Variability on Risk for Cardiac Events. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation, 94, 2850-2855.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.94.11.2850

[8]   Liao, D., Cai, J., Rosamond, W.D., Barnes, R.F., Hutchinson, R.G., Whitsel, E.A., et al. (1997) Cardiac Autonomic Function and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: A Population-Based Case-Cohort Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 145, 696-706.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/145.8.696

[9]   Dekker, J.M., Schouten, E.G., Klootwijk, P., Pool, J., Swenne, C.A. and Kromhout, D. (1997) Heart Rate Variability from Short Electrocardiographic Recording Predicts Mortality from All Causes in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men. The Zutphen Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 145, 899-908.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009049

[10]   De Meersman, R.E. (1992) Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Alteration Following Training in Endurance Athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 64, 434-436.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00625063

[11]   Levy, W.C., Cerqueira, M.D., Harp, G.D., Johannessen, K.A., Abrass, I.B., Schwartz, R.S., et al. (1998) Effect of Endurance Exercise Training on Heart Rate Variability at Rest in Healthy Young and Older Men. American Journal of Cardiology, 82, 1236-1241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149(98)00611-0

[12]   Melanson, E.L. and Freedson, P.S. (2001) The Effect of Endurance Training on Resting Heart Rate Variability in Sedentary Adult Males. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 85, 442-449.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004210100479

[13]   Carter, J.R., Ray, C.A., Downs, E.M. and Cooke, W.H. (2003) Strength Training Reduces Arterial Blood Pressure but Not Sympathetic Neural Activity in Young Normotensive Subjects. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94, 2212-2216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01109.2002

[14]   Van Hoof, R., Macor, F., Lijnen, P., Staessen, J., Thijs, L., Vanhees, L., et al. (1996) Effect of Strength Training on Blood Pressure Measured in Various Conditions in Sedentary Men. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 17, 415- 422.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972871

[15]   Cooke, W.H. and Carter, J.R. (2005) Strength Training Does Not Affect Vagal-Cardiac Control or Cardio-Vagal Baroreflex Sensitivity in Young Healthy Subjects. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 93, 719-725.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1243-x

[16]   Heffernan, K.S., Fahs, C.A., Shinsako, K.K., Jae, S.Y. and Fernball, B. (2007) Heart Rate Recovery and Heart Rate Complexity Following Resistance Exercise Training and Detraining in Young Men. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 293, H3180-H3186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00648.2007

[17]   Tatro, D.L., Dudley, G.A. and Convertino, V.A. (1992) Carotid-Cardiac Baroreflex Response and LBNP Tolerance Following Resistance Training. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 24, 789-796.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199207000-00009

[18]   Taylor, A.C., McCartney, N., Kamath, M.V. and Wiley, R.L. (2003) Isometric Training Lowers Resting Blood Pressure and Modulates Autonomic Control. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 35, 251-256.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000048725.15026.B5

[19]   Wilmore, J.H., Parr, R.B., Vodak, P.A., Barstow, T.J., Pipes, T.V., Ward, P., et al. (1976) Strength, Endurance, BMR, and Body Composition Changes with Circuit Weight Training. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 8, 59-60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-197621000-00073

[20]   Gettman, L.R., Ward, P. and Hagan, R.D. (1982) A Comparison of Combined Running and Weight Training with Circuit Weight Training. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 14, 229-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198203000-00014

[21]   Kaikkonen, H., Yrjama, M., Siljander, E., Byman, P. and Laukkanen, R. (2000) The Effect of Heart Rate Controlled Low Resistance Circuit Weight Training and Endurance Training on Maximal Aerobic Power in Sedentary Adults. Scandinavia Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 10, 211-215.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2000.010004211.x

[22]   Gettman, L.R., Ayres, J.J., Pollock, M.L. and Jackson, A. (1978) The Effect of Circuit Weight Training on Strength, Cardiorespiratory Function, and Body Composition of Adult Men. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 10, 171-176.

[23]   Harris, K.A. and Holly, R.G. (1987) Physiological Response to Circuit Weight Training in Borderline Hypertensive Subjects. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 19, 246-252.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198706000-00011

[24]   Harber, M.P., Fry, A.C., Rubin, M.R., Smith, J.C. and Weiss, L.W. (2004) Skeletal Muscle and Hormonal Adaptations to Circuit Weight Training in Untrained Men. Scandinavia Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 14, 176-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2003.371.x

[25]   Willardson, J.M. (2006) A Brief Review: Factors Affecting the Length of the Rest Interval between Resistance Exercise Sets. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 20, 978-984.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200611000-00040

[26]   Klika, B. and Jordan, C. (2013) High-Intensity Circuit Training Using Body Weight: Maximum Results with Minimal Investment. ACSM’s Health and Fitness Journal, 17, 8-14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/FIT.0b013e31828cb1e8

[27]   Thalheimer, W. and Cook, S. (2002) How to Calculate Effect Sizes from Published Research Articles: A Simplified Methodology. Work-Learning Research.
http://www.work-learning.com/

[28]   American College of Sports Medicine (2005) ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 7th Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.

[29]   Augustsson, S.R., Bersas, E., Thomas, E.M., Sahlberg, M., Augustsson, J. and Svantesson, U. (2009) Gender Differences and Reliability of Selected Physical Performance Tests in Young Women and Men. Advances in Physiotherapy, 11, 64-70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14038190801999679

[30]   Altunkan, S. (2007) Validation of the Omron M6 (HEM-7001-E) Upper-Arm Blood Pressure Measuring Device According to the International Protocol in adults and Obese Adults. Blood Pressure Monitoring, 12, 219-225.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBP.0b013e3280f813d0

[31]   Durnin, J. and Womersley, J. (1974) Body Fat Assessed from Total Body Density and Its Estimation from Skinfold Thickness: Measurements on 481 Men and Women Aged 16 to 72 Years. British Journal of Nutrition, 32, 77-97.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN19740060

[32]   Duz, S., Kocak, M. and Korkusuz, F. (2009) Evaluation of Body Composition Using Three Difference Methods Compared to Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. European Journal of Sport Science, 9, 181-190.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461390902763425

[33]   McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.I., Pechar, G.S., Jacobson, L. and Ruck, S. (1972) Reliability and Interrelationships between Maximal Oxygen Intake, Physical Work Capacity and Step-Test Scores in College Women. Medicine and Science in Sports, 4, 182-186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-197200440-00019

[34]   Coldwells, A., Atkinson, G. and Reilly, T. (1994) Sources of Variation in Back and Leg Dynamometry. Ergonomics, 37, 79-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139408963625

[35]   Juricek, J., Derek, L., Unic, A., Serdar, T., Marijancevic, D., Zivkovic, M., et al. (2010) Analytical Evaluation of the Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Olympus AU2700 Plus. Biochemia Medica, 20, 334-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11613/bm.2010.043

[36]   Heffernan, K.S., Kelly, E.E., Collier, S.R. and Fernhall, B. (2006) Cardiac Autonomic Modulation during Recovery from Acute Endurance versus Resistance Exercise. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 13, 80-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00149831-200602000-00012

[37]   Heffernan, K.S., Sosnoff, J.J., Jae, S.Y., Gates, G.J. and Fernhall, B. (2008) Acute Resistance Exercise Reduces Heart Rate Complexity and Increases QTc Interval. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 289-293.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-965363

[38]   Hurley, B.F., Hagberg, J.M., Goldberg, A.P., Seals, D.R., Ehsani, A.A., Brennan, R.E., et al. (1988) Resistive Training Can Reduce Coronary Risk Factors without Altering VO2max or Percent Body Fat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 20, 150-154.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198820020-00008

[39]   Fagard, R.H. (2006) Exercise Is Good for Your Blood Pressure: Effects of Endurance Training and Resistance Training. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 33, 853-856.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2006.04453.x

[40]   Ray, C.A. and Carrasco, D.I. (2000) Isometric Handgrip Training Reduces Arterial Pressure at Rest without Changes in Sympathetic Nerve Activity. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 279, H245-H249.

[41]   Reid, C.M., Yeater, R.A. and Ullrich, I.H. (1987) Weight Training and Strength, Cardiorespiratory Functioning and Body Composition of Men. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 21, 40-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.21.1.40

[42]   Pollock, M.L. (1973) The Quantification of Endurance Training Programs. In: Wilmore, J.H., Ed., Exercise and Sports Science Reviews, Academic Press, New York, 155-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00003677-197300010-00010

[43]   Wilmore, J.H., Parr, R.B., Ward, T.J., Vodak, P.A., Barstow, T.J., Pipes, T.V., et al. (1978) Energy Cost of Circuit Weight Training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 10, 75-78.

[44]   Rose, S.J. and Rothstein, J.M. (1982) General Concepts and Adaptations to Altered Patterns of Use. Physical Therapy, 62, 1773-1787.

[45]   Hurley, B. (1982) Effects of Resistive Training on Lipoprotein-Lipid Profiles: A Comparison to Aerobic Exercise Training. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 21, 689-693.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198912000-00012

[46]   Williams, A.D., Almond, J., Ahuja, K.D.K., Beard, D.C., Robertson, I.K. and Ball, M.J. (2011) Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effects of Community Based Resistance Training in an Older Population. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14, 331-337.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.02.011

[47]   Taniguchi, Y. (1997) Lateral Specificity in Resistance Training: The Effect of Bilateral and Unilateral Training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 75, 144-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004210050139

[48]   Saito, M., Iwase, S. and Hachiya, T. (2009) Resistance Exercise Training Enhances Sympathetic Nerve Activity during Fatigue-Inducing Isometric Handgrip Trials. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 105, 225-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0893-5

[49]   Aubert, A.E., Seps, B. and Beckers, F. (2003) Heart Rate Variability in Athletes. Sports Medicine, 33, 889-919.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333120-00003

[50]   Ribeiro, T.F., Azevedo, G.D., Crescencio, J.C., Maraes, V.R.F.S., Papa, V., Catai, A.M., et al. (2001) Heart Rate Variability under Resting Conditions in Postmenopausal and Young Women. Brazilian Journal of Medical Biology Research, 34, 871-877.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2001000700006

[51]   Bloomfield, D.M., Magnano, A., Bigger, J.R., Rivadeneira, H., Parides, M. and Steinman, R.C. (2001) Comparison of Spontaneous vs. Metronome-Guided Breathing on Assessment of Vagal Modulation Using RR Variability. American Journal of Physiology, 280, H1145-H1150.

 
 
Top