W. Yang and B. T. Kuan, “Experimental Investigation of Dilute Turbulent Particulate Flow inside a Curved 90? Bend,” Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 61, No. 11, 2006, pp. 3593-3601. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2006.01.013
 B. T. Kuan, “CFD Simulation of Dilute Gas-Solid Two-Phase Flows with Different Solid Size Distributions in a Curved 90? Duct Bend,” The Australian and New Zealand Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 46, 2005, pp. C744-C763.
 A. Levy and D. J. Mason, “The Effect of a Bend on the Particle Cross-Section Concentration and Segregation in Pneumatic Conveying Systems,” Powder Technology, Vol. 98, No. 2, 1998, pp. 95-103. doi:10.1016/S0032-5910(97)03385-8
 K. Mohanarangam, Z. F. Tian and J. Y. Tu, “Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Gas—Particle Flow in a 90? Bend: Eulerian—Eulerian Approach,” Computers and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2008, pp. 561-571. doi:10.1016/j.compchemeng.2007.04.001
 K. Mohanarangam, Z. F. Tian, J. Y. Tu, “Numerical Computation of Turbulent Gas-Particle Flow in a 90 Degree Bend: Comparison of Two Particle Modeling Approaches,” The Australian and New Zealand Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 48, 2007, pp. C741-C758.
 X. Chen, B. S. McLaury and S. A, “Shirazi, Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Relative Erosion Severity between Plugged Tees and Elbows in Dilute Gas-Solid Two-Phase Flow,” Wear, Vol. 261, No. 7-8, 2006, pp. 715-729. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2006.01.022
 T. Deng, A. R. Chaudhry, M Patel, I. Hutchings and M. S. A. Bradley, “Effect of Particle Concentration on Erosion Rate of Mild Steel Bends in a Pneumatic Conveyor,” Wear, Vol. 258, No. 1-4, 2005, pp. 480-487. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2004.08.001