Back
 Health  Vol.8 No.1 , January 2016
Role of Breastfeeding in Promoting Maternal & Child Health and Policy Implications in New Zealand
Abstract: Worldwide researches over infant’s health have generally focused and aimed on understanding the complex factors (both positive and negative) affecting the infant’s health which further had ultimately helped them to frame policies nationally as well as internationally. Out of these factors, breastfeeding is one of the vital concerns for research related to infant mortality and morbidity. The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed until first six months and receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods thereafter while breastfeeding continues for up to two years of age or beyond. In New Zealand (NZ), only 12% of 6 months old children were exclusively breastfed in 2006. The Ministry of Health plays a leading role for the protection, promotion and supporting breastfeeding in NZ. There are a number of areas/implications that NZ need to focus at such as providing antenatal and postpartum education, training of health professionals, community and workplace support, policy frameworks, breast-feeding statistics and intersectoral approach. These measures mainly focus at the initiation but less has been done to continue and support breastfeeding in NZ. In order to achieve this, all of these areas should be given prime and equal consideration. Hence, there is a strong need to develop strategies that maintain and promote breastfeeding at 6 months or beyond in NZ taking into considerations of various barriers and enabling factors.
Cite this paper: Ramil, A. (2016) Role of Breastfeeding in Promoting Maternal & Child Health and Policy Implications in New Zealand. Health, 8, 75-82. doi: 10.4236/health.2016.81009.
References

[1]   Marriot, M.B., Campbell, L., Hirsch, E. and Wilson, D. (2007) Preliminary Data from Demographic and Health Surveys on Infant Feeding in 20 Developing Countries. The Journal of Nutrition, 137, 518-523.

[2]   Lowdermilk, L.D., Perry, E.S., Cashion, K. and Alden, R.K. (2012) Maternity and Women’s Health Care. 10th Edition, Elsevier Incorporate, St. Louis.

[3]   Kotch, B.J. (2005) Maternal and Child Health: Programs, Problems and Policy in Public Health. 2nd Edition, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Burlington.

[4]   Dykes, F. (2006) Breastfeeding in Hospital: Mothers, Midwives and the Production Line. Routledge, London.

[5]   Lonnerdal, B. (2000) Breast Milk: A Truly Functional Food. Nutrition, 16, 509-511.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(00)00363-4

[6]   Imdad, A., Yakoob, Y.M. and Bhutta, A.Z. (2011) Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion Interventions on Breastfeeding Rates, with Special Focus in Developing Countries. BMC Public Health, 11, 1471 2458.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-s3-s24

[7]   Eglash, A., Montgomeery, A. and Wood, J. (2008) Breastfeeding. DM, 5, 343-411.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.disamonth.2008.03.001

[8]   National Breastfeeding Advisory Committee of New Zealand. (2009) National Strategic Plan of Action for Breastfeeding 2008-2012: National Breastfeeding Advisory Committee of New Zealand’s Advice to the Director-General of Health. Ministry of Health, Wellington.

[9]   Royal New Zealand Plunket Society (2010) Breastfeeding Data: Analysis of 2004-2009 Data. Royal New Zealand Plunket Society, Wellington.

[10]   Perkins, S. and Vannais, C. (2004) Breastfeeding for Dummies. Wiley Publishing Incorporation, Hoboken.

[11]   Ying, W.S. (2005) Breastfeeding: Laws and Societal Impact. Nova Science Publishers, New York.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000446-200505000-00005

[12]   Lawrence, M.R. and Pane, A.C. (2007) Human Breast Milk: Current Concepts of Immunology and Infectious Diseases. Current Problem Pediatric Adolescent Health Care, 37, 7-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cppeds.2006.10.002

[13]   Newburg, D. (2009) Neonatal Protection by Innate Im-mune System of Human Milk Consisting of Milk Oligosacchiarides and Glycans. Journal of Animal Science, 87, 26-34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1347

[14]   Ogbuanu, I.U., Karmaus, W., Arshad, S.H., Kurukulaaratchy, R.J. and Ewart, S. (2009) Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Lung Function at Age 10 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study. Thorax, 64, 62-66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thx.2008.101543

[15]   Hanson, L. (2004) Protective Effects of Breast-feeding against Urinary Tract Infection. Acta paediatrica, 93, 154-156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2004.tb00695.x

[16]   Trotter, S. (2004) Breastfeeding: The Essential Guide. Circa Print Solutions Limited, Renfrewshire.

[17]   McKenna, J.J. and McDade, T. (2005) Why Babies Should Never Sleep Alone: A Review of the Co-Sleeping Controversy in Relation to SIDS, Bed Sharing and Breastfeeding. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 6, 134-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2005.03.006

[18]   Johnston, P., Flood, K. and Spinks, K. (2004) The Newborn Child. 9th Edition, Elsevier Science, London.

[19]   Lauwers. J. and Swisher, A. (2011) Counseling the Nursing Mother: A Lactation Consultant Guide. 5th Edition, Jones and Bartlett Learning, Burlington.

[20]   Galson, K.S. (2008) Mothers and Children Benefits From Breastfeeding. Journal of American Dietetic Association, 108, 1106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2008.04.028

[21]   La Leche League International (2004) The Womanly Art of Breast-feeding. 7th Edition, La Leche League International Incorporation, New York.

[22]   Silvia, D.M., Senarath, U., Gunatilake, M. and Lokuhetty, D. (2010) Prolonged Breastfeeding Reduces Risk of Breast Cancer in Sri Lankan Women: A Case-Control Study. Cancer Epidemiology, 34, 267-273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2010.02.012

[23]   American Dietetic Association (2009) Position of the American Dietetic Association: Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109, 1926-1942.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2009.09.018

[24]   Hall, A.W. and Hauck, Y. (2005) Getting It Right: Australian Primiparas’ View about Breastfeeding: A Quasi Experimental Study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44, 786-795.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.02.006

[25]   Wojnar, D. (2004) Maternal Perceptions of Early Breastfeeding Experiences and Breastfeeding Outcomes at 6 Weeks. Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing, 8, 93-100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cein.2004.08.001

[26]   The National Health Committee (1999) Review of Maternity Health Services in New Zealand. National Health Committee, Wellington.

[27]   Jansen, J., Weerth, D.C. and Walraven, R.M.J. (2008) Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship—A Review. Developmental Review, 28, 503-521.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2008.07.001

[28]   Department of Labor (2007) Parental Leave in New Zealand: 2005-2006 Evaluation. Department of Labor, Wellington.

[29]   National Breastfeeding Advisory Committee of New Zealand (2008) Background Report: Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding in New Zealand. Ministry of Health, Wellington.

[30]   Ministry of Health (2002) Breastfeeding: A Guide to Action. Ministry of Health, Wellington.

[31]   New Zealand Breastfeeding Authority (2007) Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative and Baby Friendly Communities Initiative. New Zealand Breastfeeding Authority, New Zealand.

[32]   Ministry of Health. (2008) Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Healthy Infants and Toddlers (Aged 0-2): A Background Paper. Ministry of Health, Wellington.

[33]   Butler, S., Williams, M., Tukuitonga, C. and Paterson, J. (2004) Factors Associated with Not Breast Feeding Exclusively among Mothers of a Cohort of Pacific Infants in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, 117, U908.

 
 
Top