OJAS  Vol.1 No.2 , July 2011
Impact of the photosensitizers hematoporphyrin coated gold nanoparticles on biomphalaria alexandrina snails
Abstract: The present study was done using two concentrations of the photosensitizer Hematoporphyrin coated Gold Nanoparticles (HpdGNP3) (5x10–6 , 5x10–5 mole/dicemeter–3), to evaluate their efficacy on survival rate, egg-laying capacity of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and on histological deteriorations in their hermaphrodite gland. B. alexandrina snails were incubated for 12 hours at each tested concentration in the dark, thereafter they were exposed to direct sunlight (336.2 W/m2) for either 2 or 4 hours followed by 24 hours of recovery. Control snails were treated with these concentrations without exposure to light irradiance. Another experiment was carried out simultaneously and the snails were left for 4 weeks of recovery to evaluate their egg-laying capacity (Mx). The results indicate that 5x10–5 Mdm–3 (HpdGNPs) with 4 hours of exposure sunlight suppressed the survival rate of B. alexandrina snails by 50%. Meanwhile, control snails incubated with 5x10–5 Mdm–3 HpdGNPs were not affected and still alive (100%). For snail’s fecundity (Mx), treated snails laid low number of eggs throughout the recov-ery period (4 weeks), in comparison with that of control ones. The highest value of Mx for snails treated with 5x10–5 Mdm–3 Hpd coated GNPs was recorded at the 3rd week of recovery period, being 6.7 eggs/snail, compared to 37.6 eggs/control snail. This has a negative reflect on the reproductive rate (Ro) of treated snails as it was reduced under these conditions by 76.6% and 86.1%, respectively.Histological tests re-vealed injuries in spermatocytes, oocytes, several degenerations of B.alexandrina hermaphrodite gland then evacuations in many gonad’s cells which severely suppressed their capacity for egg-laying. It is concluded from the present work that exposing B. alexandrina snails to sublethal concentrations of the photosensiter Hpd coated GNPs (12 hours incubation, 4 hours exposure to 336.2 W/m2) significantly reduced their reproductive capacity that may have a negative reflect on schistosomiasis transmis-sion.
Cite this paper: nullEl-Hommossany, K. and S.A, E. (2011) Impact of the photosensitizers hematoporphyrin coated gold nanoparticles on biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 1, 54-60. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2011.12007.

[1]   Abd El-Kader, M.H.; El-Sherbini, S.A.; El-Tayeb, T.A.; Mohamed, L.F. and Mohamed, S.A. ( 2001) : Hematoporphyrin as photomolluscicide to control Fasciola snails. Abst. 4th Euro-Mediterranean Conf., Laser & Photobiol. Applic. Medicine, Environ. & Biotech., Cairo Univ., Cairo, Egypt: 46.

[2]   Abd El-Meguid (1996): Effect of He-Ne laser beam on the Ommatidia in Schistsocerca gregaria. Arab. J. Nucl. Sci- & Appl., 29: 53-67.

[3]   Ben Amor, T.; Tranchin, M.; Bortolotto, L.; Verdiglione, R. and Jori, G. (1998): Porphyrin and related compounds as photoactivable Insecticides. Photochem. Photobiol. 67: 206-211. doi:10.1562/0031-8655(1998)067<0206:PARCAP>2.3.C O;2

[4]   Bertoloni, G.; Sacchetto, R.; Jori, G.; Vernon, D.I. and Brown, S.B. (1993): Portophyrin photosensitization of Enterococcus hirae and Candida albicons cells. Lasers Life Sci., 5(4): 267-275.

[5]   El-Sayed, K.A. and El-Sherbini, S.A. (2006): Impact of Hematoporphyrin and different laser sources on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and their infection with Schistosoma mansoni. J. Biol. Chem. Environ Sci, 1(2), 319-340.

[6]   El-Tarky, A.G.S. (2005): Semifield studies to control schistosomiaisis free larval stages and its snail vectors using selected sensitizers with sunlight and laser radiation. Ph. D. Thethis National Inst. Of Laser Enhanced Sci. (NILS), Cairo Univ., Cairo, Egypt.

[7]   Lardans, V. and Dissous, C. (1998): Snail control strategies for reduction of schistosomiasis transmission. Parasitology Today, 14 (10): 413-417.

[8]   Mohamed, SH and Saad, AA (1990): Histological studies on the Hermaphrodite gland of Limnaea caillaudi and Biomphalaria alexandrina upon infection with certain larval trematodes. Egypt. J. Histol., 13 (1): 47-53.

[9]   Nolan, M.O., Howard, W.B . and Elizabeth, R.M. (1953): Results of laboratory screening tests of chemical compounds for molluscicidal activity. Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 22: 716-752.

[10]   Pasvol, G. and Hoffman, S. (2001): Trop. Med. Science and Practice “Schistosomiasis” Imperial college press, (3): 12-17.

[11]   Ragheb, M. (2009): Histological studies on the effect of gold nanoparticles on Scistosoma haematobium intermediate host (Bulinus truncates snails). MSc. Thesis, Zoology Departement, Fuculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt.

[12]   Southwood, T.R.E. (1978): Ecological methods, with particular reference to the study of insect populations. The English Language Book Society and Chopan-Hall.

[13]   Spikes, J.D. (1984): Photobiochemistry of porphyrins. In: Porphorin localization and treatment of tumors (D.R. Dorion and C.Z. Comer, Ed.) Alan R.Liss, New York, pp. 19-39

[14]   Jana, N.R., Earhart, C. and Ying, J.Y. (2007) Synthesis and covalent functionalization of nonoxidic iron core shellnanomagnetic. Chemistry of Materials, 19, 5074. doi:10.1021/cm071368z