Back
 OJE  Vol.6 No.1 , January 2016
Optimization of Biodiesel Production from African Crude Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) with High Concentration of Free Fatty Acids by a Two-Step Transesterification Process
Abstract: In this study, African crude palm olein (CPO) was used to synthesize biodiesel. The objective was to determine the optimal reaction conditions for the methanolysis of olein. The used CPO had a 5.72% concentration of free fatty acids (FFA); thus, the production of biodiesel was carried out in two stages: 1) esterification using sulfuric acid and 2) transesterification using sodium methoxide. In order to optimize the yield of biodiesel during the transesterification process, a central rotatable design and the response surface methodology were used. The studied variables were: catalyst loading, reaction time and reaction temperature. The analysis of variance showed that the variables with significant effect were the catalyst loading, reaction temperature and reaction time; as well as the catalyst loading*reaction temperature and catalyst loading*reaction time. Results indicate that the optimal reaction conditions during transesterification are: 0.65% catalyst loading (wt/wtaceite), reaction time of 135 min and a reaction temperature of 56&#176C. The optimal reaction conditions during esterification are: 2.5% weight of catalyst, reaction time of 150 min and a reaction temperature of 64.5&#176C. Under these conditions, a 90% yield of biodiesel was obtained.
Cite this paper: Anguebes-Franseschi, F. , Córdova-Quiroz, A. , Cerón-Bretón, J. , Aguilar-Ucan, C. , Castillo-Martínez, G. , Cerón-Bretón, R. , Ruíz-Marín, A. and Montalvo-Romero, C. (2016) Optimization of Biodiesel Production from African Crude Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) with High Concentration of Free Fatty Acids by a Two-Step Transesterification Process. Open Journal of Ecology, 6, 13-21. doi: 10.4236/oje.2016.61002.
References

[1]   Haas, M.J., Scott, K.M., Marmer, W.N. and Foglia, T.A. (2004) In Situ Alkaline Transesterification: An Effective Method for the Production of Fatty Acid Esters from Vegetable Oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 81, 83-89.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-004-0861-3

[2]   Teixeira, E., Mattiuzi, C., Feltes, S., Wiegand, F. and Santana, E. (2012) Estimated Atmospheric Emissions from Biodiesel and Characterization of Pollutants in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre-RS. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 84, 665-667.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652012000300008

[3]   Demirbas, A. (2007) Importance of Biodiesel as Transportation Fuel. Energy Police, 35, 4661-4670.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.04.003

[4]   Pahn, A.N. and Pahn, T.M. (2008) Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oils. Fuel, 87, 3490-3496.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2008.07.008

[5]   Fargione, J.E., Plevin, R.J. and Hill, J.D. (2010) The Ecological Impact of Biofuels. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 41, 351-377.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-102209-144720

[6]   Johnston, M. and Holloway, T. (2007) A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials. Environmental Science & Technology, 41, 7967-7973.

[7]   Marchetti, J.M. and Errazu, A.F. (2008) Esterification of Free Fatty Acids Using Sulfuric Acid as Catalyst in the Presence of Triglycerides. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32, 892-895.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.01.001

[8]   Wang, Y., Ou, S., Liu, P. and Zhang, Z. (2007) Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil via Two Step Catalysed Process. Energy Conversion and Management, 48, 184-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2006.04.016

[9]   Lozada, I., Islas, J. and Grande, G. (2010) Environmental and Economic Feasibility of Palm Oil Biodiesel in the Mexican Transportation Sector. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, 486-492.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.06.034

[10]   Umer, R., Farooq, A., Tariq, M.A., Muhammad, A. and Mushtaq, A. (2009) Optimization of Alkaline Transesterification of Rice Bran Oil for Biodiesel Production Using Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 84, 1364-1370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jctb.2191

[11]   Kafuku, G., Teong-Lee, K. and Mbarawa, M. (2010) The Use of Sulfated Tin Oxide as Solid Superacid Catalyst for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Jatrophacurcas Oil. Chemical Papers, 64, 734-740.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11696-010-0063-1

[12]   Gwi-Taek, J. and Park, D.H. (2009) Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil Using Response Surface Methodology. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 156, 431-441.

[13]   De Oliveira, D., Di Luccio, M., Faccio, C., Dalla-Rosa, C., Bender, J.P., Lipken, N., Amroginski, C., Dariva, C. and De Oliveira, J.V. (2005) Optimization of Alkaline Transesterification of Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Production. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 122, 553-560.

[14]   Vicente, G., Martínez, M. and Aracil, J. (2005) Optimization of Brassica carinata Oil Methanolysis for Biodiesel Production. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 82, 899-904.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-005-1162-6

[15]   Aracil, J., Bouaid, A. and Martinez, M. (2007) A Comparative Study of Ethyl Esters from Vegetable Oils as a Biodiesel Fuel Optimization by Factorial Design. Chemical Engineering Journal, 134, 93-99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2007.03.077

[16]   Joshi, H., Toler, J., Moser, B.R. and Walker, T. (2009) Biodiesel from Canola Oil Using a 1:1 Molar Mixture of Methanol and Ethanol. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 111, 464-473.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200800071

 
 
Top