Back
 Health  Vol.8 No.1 , January 2016
Levels of Empathy among Dental Students in Five Chilean Universities
Abstract: Aim: To compare empathic levels among dental students of five Dental Faculties in Chile. Material and Methods: Empathic orientation of dental students was measured using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, the Spanish version for students (S version), validated in Chile and culturally adapted to dental students. The data were compared using analysis of variance trifactorial (model III) and by a discriminant analysis. Results: It was found that differences exist between universities empathic orientation, courses, and gender. Conclusions: The results showed a great variability of empathetic guidance values on the factors studied. Discriminant test confirm the similarity and differences found among faculties from the data matrix provided by the scale used. It is not possible in this investigation to explain the variability found.
Cite this paper: Díaz-Narváez, V. , Núñez, A. , Carrasco, D. , Bustos, A. , Zamorano, A. , Silva, H. , Tagle, E. , Hubermann, J. , Utsman, R. , Reyes, A. (2016) Levels of Empathy among Dental Students in Five Chilean Universities. Health, 8, 32-41. doi: 10.4236/health.2016.81005.
References

[1]   Hojat, M., Gonella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M. and Magee, M. (2002) Physician Empathy: Definition, Components, Measurement and Relationship to Gender and Specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1563-1569.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.9.1563

[2]   Stephenson, A., Higgs, R. and Sugarman, J. (2001) Teaching Professional Development in Medical Schools. Lancet, 357, 867-870.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04201-X

[3]   Díaz-Narváez, V.P., Alonso, L.M., Caro, S.E., Silva, M.G., Arboleda, J., Bilbao, J.L. and Iglesias, J. (2014) Empathic Orientation among Medical Students from Three Universities in Barranquilla, Colombia and One University in the Dominican Republic. Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría, 112, 41-49.

[4]   Kunyk, D. and Olson, J.K. (2001) Clarification of Conceptualizations of Emphaty. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35, 317-325.

[5]   Alcorta-Garza, A., González-Guerrero, J.F., Tavitas-Herrera, S.E., Rodríguez-Lara, F.J. and Hojat, M. (2005) Scale validation of Jefferson Medical Empathy in Mexican Medical Students. Salud Mental, 28, 57-63.

[6]   Roh, M., Hahm, B., Lee, D. and Suh, D. (2010) Evaluation of Empathy among Korean Medical Students: A Cross- Sectional Study Using the Korean Version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 22, 167-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2010.488191

[7]   Kataoka, H., Koide, N., Ochi, K., Hojat, M. and Gonnella, J. (2009) Measurement of Empathy among Japanese Medical Student. Psychometrics and Score Differences by Gender and Level of Medical Education. Academic Medicine, 84, 1192-1197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181b180d4

[8]   Silva, M.G., Arboleda, J. and Díaz Narváez, V.P. (2013) Empathic Orientation Dental Students from the Universidad Central del Este. Odontoestomatología, 15, 24-33.

[9]   Silva, H., Zamorano, A. and Díaz Narváez, V.P. (2013) Assessment Levels Empathic Orientation Dental Students at the University Finis Terrae de Santiago (Chile). Revista Clínica de Periodoncia, Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral, 6, 130-133.

[10]   Huberman, J., Rodríguez, M.P., González, S. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2014) Levels of Empathic Orientation Dental Students of the Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago (Chile). Revista Clínica de Periodoncia, Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral, 7, 169-174.

[11]   Carrasco, D., Bustos, A. and Díaz, V. (2012) Empathic Orientation in Dentistry Chilean Students. Revista Estoma- tológica Herediana, 22, 145-151.

[12]   Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2009) Scientific Research Methodology and Biostatistics for Professionals and Students of Health Sciences. 2nd Edition, RiL Editores, Santiago.

[13]   Rivera, I., Arratia, R., Zamorano, A. and Díaz Narváez, V.P. (2011) Evaluation of Empathic Orientation Dental Students. Salud Uninorte, 27, 63-72.

[14]   Shapiro, S.S. and Wilk, M.B. (1965) An Analysis of Variance Test for Normality (Complete Samples). Biometrika, 52, 591-611.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biomet/52.3-4.591

[15]   Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L. and Black, W.C. (2001) Multivariate Analysis. Editorial Prentice-Hall, Madrid.

[16]   Frías, M.D., Llobell, J.P. and García, J.F. (2000) Size of Treatment Effect and Statistical Significance. Psicothema, 2, 236-240.

[17]   Levy, J.P. and Varela, J. (2003) Multivariate Analysis for the Social Sciences. Pearson Prentice Hall, Madrid, 249-257.

[18]   Visauta, B. (1998) Statistical Analysis with SPSS. Vol. II, McGraw-Hill, Madrid, 135-137.

[19]   Sánchez, L., Padilla, M., Rivera, I., Zamorano, A. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2013) Levels of Empathic Orientation Dental Students. Educación Médica Superior, 27, 216-225.

[20]   Erazo, A.M., Alonso, L.M., Rivera, I., Zamorano, A. and Díaz Narváez, V.P. (2012) Evaluation of Empathetic Orientation Dental Students in Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla (Colombia). Salud Uninorte, 28, 354-363.

[21]   Howard, M., Navarro, S., Rivera, I., Zamorano, A. and Díaz Narváez, V.P. (2013) Measuring the Level of Empathic Orientation in Students of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Costa Rica. Odovtos, 15, 21-26.

[22]   Bilbao, J., Alcócer, A., Salazar, G., Rivera, I., Zamorano, A. and Díaz Narváez, V.P. (2013) Evaluation of Empathic Orientation of Dental Students of Fundación Universitaria San Martín. Puerto Colombia. (Atlántico, Colombia). Salud Uninorte, 29, 34-41.

[23]   Gutiérrez, F., Quezada, B., López, M., Méndez, J., Díaz Narváez, V.P., Zamorano, A. and Rivero, I. (2012) Measuring the Level of Empathic Perception of the Students of the Faculty of Dentistry Roberto Beltrán. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Revista Estomatológica Herediana, 22, 91-99.

[24]   Varela, T., Villalba, R.H., Gargantini, P., Quinteros, S., Villalba, S.V. and Díaz Narváez, V.P. (2012) Levels of Empathic Counseling Students of Dentistry; Universidad Católica de Córdova, Argentina (UCC). Claves de Odontología, 70, 15-22.

[25]   Oviedo, M. (2011) Empathy and Training of Students in the Faculty of Dentistry; Universidad de Carabobo. Tesis doctoral Internet, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, 158.
http://biblioteca.universia.net/html_bura/ficha/params/title/empatia-estudiantes-formacion-facultad-odontologia-universidad-carabobo/id/55311551.html

[26]   Alonso, L.M., Caro, S.E., Erazo, A.M. and Díaz Narváez, V.P. (2013) Evaluation of Empathic Orientation of Medical Students; Universidad del Norte. Barranquilla. (Colombia). Salud Uninorte, 29, 22-33.

[27]   Rojas-Serey, A.M., Castaneda-Barthelemiez, S. and Parraguez-Infiesta, R.A. (2009) Empathic Orientation in Students from Two Schools of Kinesiology Chile. Educación Médica, 12, 103-109.

[28]   Chen, D., Lew, R., Hershman, W. and Orlander, J. (2007) A Cross-Sectional Measurement of Medical Student Empathy. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22, 1434-1338.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-007-0298-x

[29]   Bellini, L. and Shea, J. (2005) Mood Change and Empathy Decline Persist during Three Years of Internal Medicine Training. Academic Medicine, 80, 164-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200502000-00013

[30]   Chen, J., LaLopa, J. and Dang, D. (2008) Impact of Patient Empathy Modeling on Pharmacy Students Caring for the Underserved. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72, 40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/aj720240

[31]   Nunes, P., Willians, S., Sa, B. and Stevenson, K. (2011) A Study of Empathy Decline in Students from Five Health Disciplines during Their First Year of Training. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 12-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5116/ijme.4d47.ddb0

[32]   Hojat, M., Vergare, M.J., Maxwell, K., Brainard, G., Herrine, S.K., Isenberg, G.A., Veloski, J. and Gonnella, J.S. (2009) The Devil Is Third Year: A Longitudinal Study of Erosion of Empathy in Medical School. Academic Medicine, 84, 1182-1191.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181b17e55

[33]   Sherman, J. and Cramer, A. (2005) Measurement of Changes in Empathy during Dental School. Journal of Dental Education, 69, 338-345.

[34]   Beattie, A., Durham, J., Harvey, J., Steele, J. and McHanwell, S. (2012) Does Empathy Change in First-Year Dental Student? European Journal of Dental Education, 16, e111-e116.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0579.2011.00683.x/full

[35]   Díaz-Narváez, V.P. and Calzadilla, A. (2009) The Hypothesis and Scientific Research in the Medical and Biological Sciences. Salud Uninorte, 25, 362-373.

[36]   Garaigordobil, M. and García de Galdeano, P. (2006) Empathy in Children 10 to 12 Years. Psicothema, 18, 180-186.

[37]   Hojat, M., Louis, D., Maxwell, K., Markham, F., Wender, R. and Gonnella, J.S. (2010) Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy, Satisfaction with Physician, Interpersonal Trust, and Compliance. International Journal of Medical Education, 1, 83-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5116/ijme.4d00.b701

[38]   Decety, J., Norman, G.J., Berntson, G.G. and Cacioppo, J.T. (2012) A Neurobehavioral Evolutionary Perspective on the Mechanisms Underling Empathy. Progress in Neurobiology, 98, 38-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.05.001

[39]   Decety, J. and Svetlova, M. (2012) Putting Together Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Perspectives on Empathy. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 1-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2011.05.003

[40]   Decety, J. (2011) Dissecting the Neural Mechanisms Mediating Empathy. Emotion Review, 3, 92-108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1754073910374662

[41]   Rizzolatti, G., Fogassi, L. and Gallese, V. (2006) Mirrors in the Mind. Scientific American, 295, 54-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1106-54

[42]   Rizzolatti, G. and Sinigaglia, C. (2006) Mirror Neurons. Paidós, Barcelona.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0470018860.s00360

[43]   Rizzolatti, G., Fogassi, L. and Gallese, V. (2001) Neurophisiological Mechanisms Underlying the Understanding and Imitation of Action. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 661-670.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35090060

[44]   García-García, E., González, J. and Maestú-Unturbe, F. (2011) Mirror Neurons and Theory of Mind in the Explanation of Mind. Ansiedad y Estrés, 17, 265-279.

[45]   Chambers, D.W. (2010) The Role of Empathy in Ethics (Letter to the Editor). Journal of Dental Education, 74, 1275-1277.

[46]   Fernández-Pinto, I., López-Pérez, B. and Márquez, M. (2008) Empathy Theories and Applications in Review. Anales de Psicologia, 24, 284-298.

[47]   Almonte, C. and Montt, M.A. (2012) Child and Adolescent Psychopathology. 2nd Edition, Mediterráneo, Santiago, 45-58.

[48]   Schwartz, B. and Bohay, R. (2012) Can Patients Help Teach Professionalism and Empathy to Dental Students? Adding Patient Videos to a Lecture Course. Journal of Dental Education, 76, 174-184.

[49]   Decety, J., Smith, E., Norman, G.J. and Halpern, J. (2014) A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Clinical Empathy. World Psychiatry, 13, 233-237.

[50]   Díaz-Narváez, V.P., Erazo, A.M., Bilbao, J.M., González, F., Padilla, M., Howard, M., et al. (2015) Empathy Gender in Dental Students in Latin America: An Exploratory and Cross-Sectional Study. Health, 7, 1527-1535.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/health.2015.711166

 
 
Top