JWARP  Vol.8 No.1 , January 2016
Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Central India
Abstract: The groundwater is widely used for irrigation of rice crops. The overuse of groundwater causes depletion of the water quality (i.e. enormous increase in conductivity, hardness and ion and metal contents, etc.) in several regions of the country and world. In this work, the quality of the groundwater in the densestrice cropping area, Saraipali, Chhattisgarh, Central India is discussed. The water is sodic in nature with extremely high electrical conductivity. The mean concentration (n = 30) of F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Fe in the water was 1.2 ± 0.2, 98 ± 31, 46 ± 15, 56 ± 9, 19 ± 4, 206 ± 25, 9.2 ± 2.3, 39 ± 6, 114 ± 19 and 1.7 ± 0.6 mg/L, respectively. The sources of the contaminants are apportioned by using the factor analysis model. The suitability of the groundwater for the drinking and irrigation purposes is assessed.
Cite this paper: Choudhary, S. , Ramteke, S. , Rajhans, K. , Sahu, P. , Chakradhari, S. , Patel, K. and Matini, L. (2016) Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Central India. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 12-19. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.81002.

[1]   Kulkarni, H., Shah, M. and Vijay Shankar, P.S. (2015) Shaping the Contours of Groundwater Governance in India. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 4, 172-192.

[2]   Machiwal, D. and Jha, M.K. (2015) Identifying Sources of Groundwater Contamination in a Hard-Rock Aquifer System Using Multivariate Statistical Analyses and GIS-Based Geostatistical Modeling Techniques. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 4, 80-110.

[3]   Basavarajappa, H.T. and Manjunatha, M.C. (2015) Groundwater Quality Analysis in Precambrian Rocks of Chitradurga District, Karnataka, India Using Geo-Informatics Technique. Aquatic Procedia, 4, 1354-1365.

[4]   Verma, S., Mukherjee, A., Choudhury, R. and Mahanta, C. (2015) Brahmaputra River Basin Groundwater: Solute Distribution, Chemical Evolution and Arsenic Occurrences in Different Geomorphic Settings. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 4, 131-153.

[5]   Hallett, B.M., Dharmagunawardhane, H.A., Atal, S., Valsami-Jones, E., Ahmed, S. and Burgess, W.G. (2015) Mineralogical Sources of Groundwater Fluoride in Archaen Bedrock/Regolith Aquifers: Mass Balances from Southern India and North-Central Sri Lanka. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 4, 111-130.

[6]   Banerjee, A. (2015) Groundwater Fluoride Contamination: A Reappraisal. Geoscience Frontiers, 6, 277-284.

[7]   Rosin, K.G., Kaur, R., Singh, S.D., Singh, P. and Dubey, D.S. (2013) Groundwater Vulnerability to Contaminated Irrigation Waters—A Case of Peri-Urban Agricultural Lands around an Industrial District of Haryana, India. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 18, 200-210.

[8]   Venkateswaran, S. and Deepa, S. (2015) Assessment of Groundwater Quality Using GIS Techniques in Vaniyar Watershed, Ponnaiyar River, Tamil Nadu. Aquatic Procedia, 4, 1283-1290.

[9]   Adnan, S. and Iqbal, J. (2014) Spatial Analysis of the Groundwater Quality in the Peshawar District, Pakistan. Procedia Engineering, 70, 14-22.

[10]   Banerjee, S., Das, B., Umlong, I.M., Devi, R.R., Kalita, H., Saikia, L.B., Borah, K., Raul, P.K. and Singh, L. (2011) Heavy Metal Contaminants of Undergroundwater in Indo Bangla Border Districts of Tripura, India. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 3, 516-522.

[11]   Kumar, A., Narang, S., Mehra, R. and Singh, S. (2015) Assessment of Radon Concentration and Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater Samples from Some Areas of Fazilka District, Punjab, India. Indoor and Built Environment.

[12]   Borah, J. (2011) Monitoring Fluoride Concentration and Some Other Physico-Chemical Properties of Groundwater of Tinsukia District, Assam, India. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 3, 1339-1342.

[13]   Singaraja, C., Chidambaram, S., Anandhan, P., Prasanna, M.V., Thivya, C., Thilagavathi, R. and Sarathidasan, J. (2014) Geochemical Evaluation of Fluoride Contamination of Groundwater in the Thoothukudi District of Tamilnadu, India. Applied Water Science, 4, 241-250.

[14]   Singaraja, C., Chidambaram, S., Anandhan, P., Prasanna, M.V., Thivya, C. and Thilagavathi, R. (2013) A Study on the Status of Fluoride Ion in Groundwater of Coastal Hard Rock Aquifers of South India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 6, 4167-4177.

[15]   Ghosh, S., Chakraborty, S., Roy, B., Banerjee, P. and Bagchi, A. (2010) Assessment of Health Risks Associated with Fluoride-Contaminated Groundwater in Birbhum District of West Bengal, India. Journal of Environmental Protection Science, 4, 13-21.

[16]   APHA (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st Edition, AWWA, WEF and APHA, Washington DC.

[17]   Nollet, L.M.L. and De Gelder, L.S.P. (2007) Handbook of Water Analysis, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[18]   Shrestha, S. and Kazama, F. (2007) Assessment of Surface Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of the Fuji River Basin, Japan. Environmental Modelling and Software, 22, 464-475.

[19]   BIS (2003) Indian Standard Drinking Water Specifications (IS 10500:1991), Ed. 2.2 (2003-2009), Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

[20]   WHO (2011) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 4th Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva.