Non Linear Electrodynamics Contributing to a Minimum Vacuum Energy (“Cosmological Constant”) Allowed in Early Universe Cosmology

ABSTRACT

This article poses the question of a minimum cosmological constant, i.e. vacuum energy at the start of the cosmological evolution from a near singularity. We pose this comparing formalism as given by Berry (1976) as to a small time length, and compare that in its entirety to compare this value given by Berry (1976) with a minimum time length at the start of cosmological space-time evolution. Using the methodology of Zeldovich (1972) as to a problem with electron-positron pair production we also propose another upper bound to the problem of minimum time length which may be accessible to experimental inquiry. This then makes the problem of minimum time length a way of specifying a magnetic field dependence of the cosmological constant, which has major implications to answering if quintessence, i.e. a changing cosmological vacuum energy, or a constant for the “cosmological constant” problem. Our answer is an initial value for the cosmological vacuum energy 10^{10} - 10^{20} times greater than today which suggests either Quintessence, or if still a constant, a much better value for this parameter than what is suggested by traditional field theory methods. In closing we review how our construct supports work done by Corda, as to early universe models and what the implications are, as to the choices we have made.

This article poses the question of a minimum cosmological constant, i.e. vacuum energy at the start of the cosmological evolution from a near singularity. We pose this comparing formalism as given by Berry (1976) as to a small time length, and compare that in its entirety to compare this value given by Berry (1976) with a minimum time length at the start of cosmological space-time evolution. Using the methodology of Zeldovich (1972) as to a problem with electron-positron pair production we also propose another upper bound to the problem of minimum time length which may be accessible to experimental inquiry. This then makes the problem of minimum time length a way of specifying a magnetic field dependence of the cosmological constant, which has major implications to answering if quintessence, i.e. a changing cosmological vacuum energy, or a constant for the “cosmological constant” problem. Our answer is an initial value for the cosmological vacuum energy 10

Cite this paper

Beckwith, A. (2016) Non Linear Electrodynamics Contributing to a Minimum Vacuum Energy (“Cosmological Constant”) Allowed in Early Universe Cosmology.*Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology*, **2**, 25-32. doi: 10.4236/jhepgc.2016.21003.

Beckwith, A. (2016) Non Linear Electrodynamics Contributing to a Minimum Vacuum Energy (“Cosmological Constant”) Allowed in Early Universe Cosmology.

References

[1] Berry, M.V. (1976) Principles of Cosmology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

[2] Camara, C.S., de Garcia Maia, M.R., Carvalho, J.C. and Lima, J.A.S. (2004) Nonsingular FRW Cosmology and Non Linear Dynamics. Physical Review D: Particles and Fields, 69, Article ID: 063501.

[3] Zeld’dovich, Y.B. (1972) The Creation of Particles and Antiparticles in Electric and Gravitational Fields. In: Klauder, J., Ed., Magic without Magic, John Archibald Wheeler, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 277-288.

[4] Dupays, A., Rizzo, C., Bakalov, D. and Bignami, G.F. (2008) Quantum Vacuum Friction in Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars. Europhys.Lett., 82, 69002.

[5] Maggiorie, M. (2008) Gravitational Waves, Volume 1, Theory and Experiments. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

[6] Garattini, R. (2006) Effective Action, Massive Gravitons and the Cosmological Constant. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 33, 215-220. http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/33/1/021/pdf/1742-6596_33_1_021.pdf

[7] Ibanez, L.E. and Urganga, A.M. (2012) String Theory and Particle Physics, An Introduction to String Phenomenology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

[8] Beckwith, A.W. (in press) Gedanken Experiment Examining How Kinetic Energy Would Dominate Potential Energy, in Pre Planckian Space-Time Physics, and Allow Us to Avoid the BICEP 2 Mistake. To be published in JHEPGC, in 2016.

[9] Corda, C. (2009) Interferometric Detection of Gravitational Waves: The Definitive Test for General Relativity. International Journal of Modern Physics D, 18, 2275-2282. http://arxiv.org/abs/0905.2502 http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218271809015904

[10] Van Den Broeck, C. (2015) Gravitational Wave Searches with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.04621v1.pdf

[11] Das, S., Mukherje, S. and Souradeep, T. (2015) Revised Cosmological Parameters after BICEP 2 and BOSS. JCAP, 2, 016. http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.0857

[12] Cowen, R. (2015) Gravitational Waves Discovery Now Officially Dead; Combined Data from South Pole Experiment BICEP2 and Planck Probe Point to Galactic Dust as Confounding Signal. http://www.nature.com/news/gravitational-waves-discovery-now-officially-dead-1.16830

[13] Cowen, R. (2014) Full-Galaxy Dust Map Muddles Search for Gravitational Waves. http://www.nature.com/news/full-galaxy-dust-map-muddles-search-for-gravitational-waves-1.15975

[14] Beckwith, A. (2015) Geddanken Experiment for Degree of Flatness, or Lack of, in Early Universe Conditions. Accepted for publication, JHEPGC. http://vixra.org/abs/1510.0108

[15] Beckwth, A. and Glinka, L. (2015) On Axionic Dark Matter, Gravitonic Dark Energy, and Multiverse Cosmology in the Light of Non-Linear Electrodynamics. Astrophysics & Aerospace Technology Beckwith and Glinka. Journal of Astrophysics & Aerospace Technology, 3, 112. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-6542.1000112

[1] Berry, M.V. (1976) Principles of Cosmology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

[2] Camara, C.S., de Garcia Maia, M.R., Carvalho, J.C. and Lima, J.A.S. (2004) Nonsingular FRW Cosmology and Non Linear Dynamics. Physical Review D: Particles and Fields, 69, Article ID: 063501.

[3] Zeld’dovich, Y.B. (1972) The Creation of Particles and Antiparticles in Electric and Gravitational Fields. In: Klauder, J., Ed., Magic without Magic, John Archibald Wheeler, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 277-288.

[4] Dupays, A., Rizzo, C., Bakalov, D. and Bignami, G.F. (2008) Quantum Vacuum Friction in Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars. Europhys.Lett., 82, 69002.

[5] Maggiorie, M. (2008) Gravitational Waves, Volume 1, Theory and Experiments. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

[6] Garattini, R. (2006) Effective Action, Massive Gravitons and the Cosmological Constant. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 33, 215-220. http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/33/1/021/pdf/1742-6596_33_1_021.pdf

[7] Ibanez, L.E. and Urganga, A.M. (2012) String Theory and Particle Physics, An Introduction to String Phenomenology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

[8] Beckwith, A.W. (in press) Gedanken Experiment Examining How Kinetic Energy Would Dominate Potential Energy, in Pre Planckian Space-Time Physics, and Allow Us to Avoid the BICEP 2 Mistake. To be published in JHEPGC, in 2016.

[9] Corda, C. (2009) Interferometric Detection of Gravitational Waves: The Definitive Test for General Relativity. International Journal of Modern Physics D, 18, 2275-2282. http://arxiv.org/abs/0905.2502 http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218271809015904

[10] Van Den Broeck, C. (2015) Gravitational Wave Searches with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.04621v1.pdf

[11] Das, S., Mukherje, S. and Souradeep, T. (2015) Revised Cosmological Parameters after BICEP 2 and BOSS. JCAP, 2, 016. http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.0857

[12] Cowen, R. (2015) Gravitational Waves Discovery Now Officially Dead; Combined Data from South Pole Experiment BICEP2 and Planck Probe Point to Galactic Dust as Confounding Signal. http://www.nature.com/news/gravitational-waves-discovery-now-officially-dead-1.16830

[13] Cowen, R. (2014) Full-Galaxy Dust Map Muddles Search for Gravitational Waves. http://www.nature.com/news/full-galaxy-dust-map-muddles-search-for-gravitational-waves-1.15975

[14] Beckwith, A. (2015) Geddanken Experiment for Degree of Flatness, or Lack of, in Early Universe Conditions. Accepted for publication, JHEPGC. http://vixra.org/abs/1510.0108

[15] Beckwth, A. and Glinka, L. (2015) On Axionic Dark Matter, Gravitonic Dark Energy, and Multiverse Cosmology in the Light of Non-Linear Electrodynamics. Astrophysics & Aerospace Technology Beckwith and Glinka. Journal of Astrophysics & Aerospace Technology, 3, 112. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-6542.1000112