JWARP  Vol.7 No.17 , December 2015
The Challenges of Water Pollution, Threat to Public Health, Flaws of Water Laws and Policies in Pakistan
Abstract: In an era of unprecedented urbanization, population and industrial growth pressure is serious threat for the water management in Pakistan in present days. Water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff limited natural fresh water resources in the country. Human health is facing serious problems due to deteriorating drinking water quality. Current review paper provides an insight to the water quality problems in Pakistan with an attempt to emphasize the challenges of water laws enforcement. Although Pakistan has developed many water laws the state of implementation is dominant, intermediate pollution crises are still remaining. We could come to the conclusion that strictly enforcement is compulsory for water environment regulations in Pakistan. Moreover, it is necessary to establish a reliable risk assessment system for water quality, human health and ecological safety.
Cite this paper: Jabeen, A. , Huang, X. and Aamir, M. (2015) The Challenges of Water Pollution, Threat to Public Health, Flaws of Water Laws and Policies in Pakistan. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 1516-1526. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.717125.

[1]   Valipour, M. (2015) Assessment of Important Factors for Water Resources Management in European Agriculture. Journal of Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering, 4, 171-180.

[2]   FAO (2011) Climate Change, Water and Food Security (FAO Water Reports Paper No. 36) [Internet]. FAO, Rome.

[3]   UNWWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme) (2003) The World Water Development Report 1: Water for People, Water for Life. UNESCO, Paris.

[4]   Erik, B.B. (2004) The Implications of Formulating a Human Right to Water. Ecology Law Quarterly, 31, 957-959.

[5]   UNICEF/WHO (2008) UNICEF and WHO Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: Special Focus on Sanitation. UNICEF, New York and WHO, Geneva.

[6]   WHO (2002) Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. France.

[7]   WHO, UNICEF (2000) Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report.

[8]   WHO (World Health Organization) (2005) Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Links to Health.

[9]   WHO (World Health Organization) (2004) World Health Report: Changing History. Geneva.

[10]   World Water Day (2002) Water for Development. Friday, 22 March 2002 Is World Water Day with the Theme Water for Development.

[11]   The Economist (2012) Going with the Flow. Accessed 7 June 2012.

[12]   Ismat Sabir (2012) Water Is Becoming Scarce. Pakistan Observer, 28 November 2012.

[13]   PCRWR (2015) Ministry of Science & Technology. Khyban-E-Johar, H-8/1, Islamabad.

[14]   Dawn News (2011) No Access to Safe Drinking Water in Pakistan. December 2011, Accessed 08 June 2012.

[15]   The Nation (2009) Pakistan among 17 Countries Facing Water Shortage. September 2009, Accessed 1 March 2012.

[16]   PCRWR (2005) Report on Technical Assessment of Water Supply Schemes. 41-42. 23 November 2011 (Accessed 3 January 2012).

[17]   PSLM (2010) Percentage Distribution of Households by Source of Drinking Water. TABLE: 4.7, November 2010, Retrieved on 6 November 2012.

[18]   Marcoux, A. (1999) Population and Environmental Change: From Linkages to Policy Issues. Sustainable Development Department, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

[19]   Pakistan Day (2012) December 2012.

[20]   Pak-SECA (2006) Pakistan Strategic Country Environmental Assessment Report: Rising to the Challenges. Islamabad, Pakistan: South Asia Environment and Social Development Unit.

[21]   Sial, R.A., Chaudhary, M.F., Abbas, S.T., Latif, M.I. and Khan, A.G. (2006) Quality of Effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B, 7, 974-980.

[22]   Raza, A. (2014) Untreated Waste Polluting Underground Water: Report. The News International, 26 November 2014.

[23]   Shahid, K. (2005) Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy “Drinking Water and Sanitation Sector”. Background Paper≠8, Review of Policies and Performance and Future Options for Improving Service Delivery, March 2005.

[24]   SOE (2005) Ministry of Environment. Government of Pakistan, draft.

[25]   PCRWR (2007) Report.

[26]   PCRWR (2012) 79% Water Sources in Punjab Supplying Unsafe Drinking Water. The Tribune, 15 May 2012, Retrieved 7 November 2012.

[27]   MPD (2004) Medium Term Development Framework 2005-2010. Section 10: Water and Sanitation. Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Retrieved 29 May 2008, Section 10.3.

[28]   Ul-Haq, N., Arain, M.A., Badar, N., Rasheed, M. and Haque, Z. (2011) Drinking Water: A Major Source of Lead Exposure in Karachi, Pakistan. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 17, 882-886.

[29]   The News (2012) KWSB Told to Supply Chlorinated Water. Karachi, November 2012.

[30]   Zuhaeb, N. (2012) Contaminated Water Contributes 40% Deaths in Pakistan, UN.

[31]   Hashmi, I., Farooq, S. and Qaiser, S. (2009) Chlorination and Water Quality Monitoring within a Public Drinking Water Supply in Rawalpindi Cantt (Westridge and Tench) Area, Pakistan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 158, 339-403.

[32]   Qutub, S.A. (2004) Sanitation and Hygiene in Pakistan. Proceedings of the National Workshop on Water and Sanitation and Exposition 2004, National Environmental Consulting (Pvt.) Ltd./Pakistan Institute for Environment Development Action Research (PIEDAR), Islamabad, 10-12 June 2004, 38-45.

[33]   Rosemann, N. (2005) Drinking Water Crisis in Pakistan and the Issue of Bottled Water: The Case of Nestlé’s “Pure Life”. Swiss Coalition of Development Organizations and Actionaid, Pakistan.

[34]   Ahmed, H.N., Niaz, M., Amin, M.A., Khan, M.H. and Parhar, A.B. (2006) Typhoid Perforation Stills a Common Problem: Situation in Pakistan in Comparison to Other Countries of Low Human Development. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 56, 230-232.

[35]   Qasim, M. (2008) Twin Cities: Water-Borne Diseases on the Rise. The News, Pakistan, Sunday 20 July 2008.

[36]   Khan and Shaheen, R. (2002) State of the Environment Report for Pakistan. Islamabad: SDPI.

[37]   Govt of Pakistan (1997) Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997.

[38]   Art 14, 20 (1997) Disposal of Wastes and Effluents and Quality Drinking Water. PEPA Act 1997.

[39]   PPC (1860) Pakistan Penal Code Chapter XIV: Offences Affecting the Public Health, Safety, Convenience, Decency and Morals 277.

[40]   PCRWR (2007) See Section 4—Functions of the Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources-Act 1 of 2007—Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources Act, 2007—“…b) Design, develop and evaluate water conservation technologies for irrigation, drinking and industrial water… [a]dvise the government and submit the policies recommendations regarding water quality, development, management, conservation and utilization of water resources…publish scientific papers, reports and periodicals as well as to arrange seminars, workshops and conferences on water related issues; ...”

[41]   BGWRA (1978) Ordinance IX (Baluchistan Ground Water Right Administration Ordinance). Functions of WASA in Baluchistan (Section 3), Establishment and Functions of Provincial Water Board.

[42]   Punjab Local Government Ordinance (2001).

[43]   Punjab Local Government Ordinance (2001). Fourth Schedule—Part D.

[44]   MOE-PAK (2005) National Environmental Policy. Govt. of Pakistan: Ministry of Environment.

[45]   MOE-PAK (2006) National Sanitation Policy. Govt. of Pakistan: Ministry of Environment.

[46]   MOE-PAK (2009) National Drinking Water Policy. Govt. of Pakistan: Ministry of Environment.

[47]   NEP: National Environment Policy (2005) Section2.2 (d).

[48]   NEP: National Environment Policy (2005) Water Supply and Management. Section 3.1.

[49]   NDWP: National Drinking Water Policy (2009) Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan. September 2009, Retrieved 7 March 2010, draft.

[50]   The Nation (2009) Cabinet Okays National Drinking Water Policy. 29 September 2009, Accessed on 7 March 2010.

[51]   NDWP (2009) Pakistan Safe Drinking Water Act Will Be Enacted to Ensure Compliance with the National Drinking Water Quality Standards. Section 6.12.

[52]   Alam, A.R. (2012) The Pakistan Water Quality Crises. The Express Tribune, 15 March 2012.