JEAS  Vol.5 No.4 , December 2015
Influence of Saliva and Mucin on the Adhesion of Candida Oral Clinical Isolates
ABSTRACT
Objectives: This research work intends to clarify the role of artificial saliva, in particularly the role of mucin, a salivary protein, on the surface properties and adhesion ability of Candida spp. oral clinical isolates to abiotic surfaces. Methods: Four oral clinical isolates of Candida spp. were used: two Candida albicans strains (AC; AM) and two Candida parapsilosis strains (AD; AM2). The strains were isolated from patients using oral prosthesis. The microorganisms were cultured in the absence or presence of mucin and artificial saliva, and their adhesion to an abiotic surface (coated with mucin and artificial saliva) was evaluated. Results: The presence of mucin per se onto the abiotic surface decreased the adhesion of all strains, although the combination of mucin with artificial saliva had reduced this effect. No direct correlation between adhesion and the surface free energies of adhesion of the microorganisms was found. Significance: Candida spp. were human commensal microorganisms that became pathogenic when the host immune defenses were compromised. Medical devices were colonized by Candida spp. particularly, oral prostheses, which might lead to the degradation of the prostheses and systemic infections. The salivary secretions that constantly cover the oral cavity influenced Candida spp. adhesion process. Therefore, it was important to understand the interactions between Candida spp., salivary proteins and the characteristic of oral prosthesis when developing materials for oral prostheses.

Cite this paper
Seabra, C. , Botelho, C. , Oliveira, A. , Henriques, M. (2015) Influence of Saliva and Mucin on the Adhesion of Candida Oral Clinical Isolates. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences, 5, 217-227. doi: 10.4236/jeas.2015.54018.
References
[1]   Kabir, M.A. and Ahmad, Z. (2013) Candida Infections and Their Prevention. ISRN Preventive Medicine, 2013, 13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/763628

[2]   Kojic, E.M. and Darouiche, R.O. (2004) Candida Infections of Medical Devices. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 17, 255-267.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.17.2.255-267.2004

[3]   Silva, S., Negri, M., Henriques, M., Oliveira, R., Williams, D.W. and Azeredo, J. (2011) Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Non-Candida albicans Candida Species. Trends Microbiology, 19, 241-247.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2011.02.003

[4]   Coronado-Castellote, L. and Jiménez-Soriano, Y. (2013) Clinical and Microbiological Diagnosis of Oral Candidiasis, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, 5, e279-e286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.51242

[5]   Dodds, M.W., Johnson, D.A. and Yeh, C.K. (2005) Health Benefits of Saliva: A Review. Journal of Dentistry, 33, 223-233.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2004.10.009

[6]   Linden, S.K., Sutton, P., Karlsson, N.G., Korolik, V. and McGuckin, M.A. (2008) Mucins in the Mucosal Barrier to Infection. Mucosal Immunology, 1, 183-197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mi.2008.5

[7]   Cannon, R.D. and Chaffin, W.L. (1999) Oral Colonization by Candida albicans. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine, 10, 359-383.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10454411990100030701

[8]   Cannon, R.D., Holmes, A.R., Mason,A.B. and Monk, B.C. (1995) Oral Candida: Clearance, Colonization, or Candidiasis? Journal of Dental Research, 74, 1152-1161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00220345950740050301

[9]   Elguezabal, N., Maza, J.L., Dorronsoro, S. and Ponton, J. (2008) Whole Saliva Has a Dual Role on the Adherence of Candida albicans to Polymethylmetacrylate, The Open Dentistry Journal, 2, 1-4.

[10]   Vasilas, A., Molina, L., Hoffman, M. and Haidaris, C.G. (1992) The Influence of Morphological Variation on Candida albicans Adhesion to Denture Acrylic in Vitro. Archives of Oral Biology, 37, 613-622.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-9969(92)90123-P

[11]   Edgerton, M., Scannapieco, F.A., Reddy, M.S. and Levine, M.J. (1993) Human Submandibular-Sublingual Saliva Promotes Adhesion of Candida albicans to Polymethylmethacrylate. Infect Immunology, 61, 2644-2652.

[12]   Lamfon, H., Porter, S.R., McCullough, M. and Pratten, J. (2003) Formation of Candida albicans Biofilms on Non-Shedding Oral Surfaces. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 111, 465-471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0909-8836.2003.00084.x

[13]   Guggenheim, B., Giertsen, E., Schupbach, P. and Shapiro, S. (2001) Validation of an in Vitro Biofilm Model of Supragingival Plaque. Journal of Dental Research, 80, 363-370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00220345010800011201

[14]   Busscher, H.J., Bos, R. and Van der Mei, H.C. (1995) Initial Microbial Adhesion Is a Determinant for the Strength of Biofilm Adhesion. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 128, 229-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1995.tb07529.x

[15]   Van Oss, C.J., Chaudhury, M.K. and Good, R.J. (1987) Monopolar Surfaces. Advances in Colloid Interface Science, 28, 35-64.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8686(87)80008-8

[16]   Van Oss, C.J., Ju, L., Chaudhury, M.K. and Good, R.J. (1989) Estimation of the Polar Parameters of the Surface Tension of Liquids by Contact Angle Measurements on Gels. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 128, 313-319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(89)90345-7

[17]   Van Oss, C.J. (1995) Hydrophobic, Hydrophilic and Other Interactions in Epitope-Paratope Binding. Molecular Immunology, 32, 199-211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0161-5890(94)00124-J

[18]   Henriques, M., Gasparetto, K., Azeredo, J. and Oliveira, R. (2002) Experimental Methodology to Quantify Candida albicans Cell Surface Hydrophobicity. Biotechnology Letters, 24, 1111-1115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016083021525

[19]   Pereira-Cenci, T., Del Bel Cury, A.A., Crielaard, W. and Ten Cate, J.M. (2008) Development of Candida-Associated Denture Stomatitis: New Insights. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 16, 86-94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-77572008000200002

[20]   Henriques, M., Azeredo, J. and Oliveira, R. (2004) Adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to Acrylic and Hydroxyapatite. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 33, 235-241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2003.10.012

[21]   Oliveira, R. (1997) Understanding Adhesion: A Means for Preventing Fouling. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 14, 316-322.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0894-1777(96)00134-3

[22]   Busscher, H.J., Geertsema-Doornbusch, G.I. and Van der Mei, H.C. (1997) Adhesion to Silicone Rubber of Yeasts and Bacteria Isolated from Voice Prostheses: Influence of Salivary Conditioning Films. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 34, 201-209.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4636(199702)34:2<201::AID-JBM9>3.0.CO;2-U

[23]   Comelles, J., Estévez, M., Martínez, E. and Samitier, J. (2010) The Role of Surface Energy of Technical Polymers in Serum Protein Adsorption and MG-63 Cells Adhesion. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 6, 44-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2009.05.006

[24]   Hoffman, M.P. and Haidaris, C.G. (1993) Analysis of Candida albicans Adhesion to Salivary Mucin. Infection and Immunity, 61, 1940-1949.

[25]   Schenkels, L.C., Veerman, E.C. and Nieuw-Amerongen, A.V. (1995) Biochemical Composition of Human Saliva in Relation to Other Mucosal Fluids. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine, 6, 161-175.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10454411950060020501

[26]   Desai, C., Mavrianos, J. and Chauhan, N. (2011) Candida glabrata Pwp7p and Aed1p Are Required for Adherence to Human Endothelial Cells. FEMS Yeast Research, 11, 595-601.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1567-1364.2011.00743.x

[27]   Aoki, W., Kitahara, N., Miura, N., Morisaka, H., Kuroda, K. and Ueda, M. (2012) Profiling of Adhesive Properties of the Agglutinin-Like Sequence (ALS) Protein Family, a Virulent Attribute of Candida albicans. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, 65, 121-124.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-695X.2012.00941.x

[28]   Butler, G., Rasmussen, M.D., Lin, M.F., Santos, M.A., Sakthikumar, S., Munro, C.A., Rheinbay, E., Grabherr, M., Forche, A., Reedy, J.L., Agrafioti, I., Arnaud, M.B., Bates, S., Brown, A.J., Brunke, S., Costanzo, M.C., Fitzpatrick, D.A., Groot, P.W., Harris, D., Hoyer, L.L., Hube, B., Klis, F.M., Kodira, C., Lennard, N., Logue, M.E., Martin, R., Neiman, A.M., Nikolaou, E., Quail, M.A., Quinn, J.M., Santos, C., Schmitzberger, F.F., Sherlock, G., Shah, P., Silverstein, K.A., Skrzypek, M.S., Soll, D., Staggs, R., Stansfield, I., Stumpf, M.P., Sudbery, P.E., Srikantha, T., Zeng, Q., Berman, J., Berriman, M., Heitman, J., Gow, N.A., Lorenz, M.C., Birren, B.W., Kellis, M. and Cuomo, C.A. (2009) Evolution of Pathogenicity and Sexual Reproduction in Eight Candida Genomes. Nature, 459, 657-662.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08064

[29]   Hoyer, L.L. (2001) The ALS Gene Family of Candida albicans. Trends in Microbiology, 9, 176-180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0966-842X(01)01984-9

 
 
Top