Gedanken Experiment for Fluctuation of Mass of a Graviton, Based on the Trace of GR Stress Energy Tensor-Pre Planckian Conditions that Lead to Gaining of Graviton Mass, and Planckian Conditions That Lead to Graviton Mass Shrinking to 10^{-62} Grams

ABSTRACT

We will be looking at the energy of a graviton, based upon the Stress energy tensor, and from there ascertaining how fluctuations in early universe conditions impact the mass of a graviton. Physically the mass of the graviton would be shrinking right after Planck time and presumably it would be going to its equilibrium value of about 10^{-62} grams, for its present day value. It, graviton mass, would increase up to the Plank time of about 10^{-44} seconds. Note that the result that graviton mass shrinks to 10^{-62} grams for its present day value works only for relic gravitons.

We will be looking at the energy of a graviton, based upon the Stress energy tensor, and from there ascertaining how fluctuations in early universe conditions impact the mass of a graviton. Physically the mass of the graviton would be shrinking right after Planck time and presumably it would be going to its equilibrium value of about 10

Cite this paper

Beckwith, A. (2016) Gedanken Experiment for Fluctuation of Mass of a Graviton, Based on the Trace of GR Stress Energy Tensor-Pre Planckian Conditions that Lead to Gaining of Graviton Mass, and Planckian Conditions That Lead to Graviton Mass Shrinking to 10^{-62} Grams. *Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology*, **2**, 19-24. doi: 10.4236/jhepgc.2016.21002.

Beckwith, A. (2016) Gedanken Experiment for Fluctuation of Mass of a Graviton, Based on the Trace of GR Stress Energy Tensor-Pre Planckian Conditions that Lead to Gaining of Graviton Mass, and Planckian Conditions That Lead to Graviton Mass Shrinking to 10

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[15] Ng, Y.J. (2007) Holographic Foam, Dark Energy and Infinite Statistics. Physics Letters B, 657, 10-14.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2007.09.052

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[17] Kolb, E. and Turner, M. (1990) The Early Universe. Frontiers in Physics, Vol. 69, Chicago, Illinois, USA,

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[1] Padmanabhan, T. (2006) An Invitation to Astrophysics. World Scientific, Co. Pte., Singapore.

[2] Giovannini, M. (2008) A primer on the Physics of the Cosmic Microwave Background. World Scientific, Singapore.

[3] Will, C. (2006) The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment. Living Reviews in Relativity, 9. http://relativity.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrr-2006-3/

[4] Crowell, L. and Corda, C. (2014) f(R) Gravity, Relic Coherent Gravitons and Optical Chaos. Galaxies, 2, 160-188. http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4434/2/1/160

[5] Corda, C. (2010) Massive Relic Gravitational Waves from f(R) Theories of Gravity: Production and Potential Detection. The European Physical Journal C, 65, 257-267. http://arxiv.org/abs/1007.4077

[6] Corda, C. (2009) Interferometric Detection of Gravitational Waves: The Definitive Test for General Relativity. International Journal of Modern Physics D, 18, 2275-2282. http://arxiv.org/abs/0905.2502 http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218271809015904

[7] Capozziello, S., Corda, C. and De Laurentis, M.F. (2008) Massive Gravitational Waves from f(R) Theories of Gravity: Potential Detection with LISA. Physics Letters B, 669, 255-259.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03702693/669

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2008.10.001

[8] Corda, C. and Mosquera Cuesta, H.J. (2009) A Spherically Symmetric and Stationary Universe from a Weak Modification of General Relativity. Europhysics Letters Association · EPL (Europhysics Letters), 86, No. 2.

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1209/0295-5075/86/20004/meta;jsessionid=4325631A1108AF986616AA0570ED20D0.c1.iopscience.cld.iop.org

[9] Corda, C. (2007) A Longitudinal Component in Massive Gravitational Waves Arising from a Bimetric Theory of Gravity. Astroparticle Physics, 28, 247-250.

http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.0985

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2007.05.009

[10] Beckwith, A. (2015) Gedanken Experiment for Degree of Flatness, or Lack of, in Early Universe Conditions. Accepted for publication in JHEPGC October 22. http://vixra.org/pdf/1510.0108v4.pdf

[11] Beckwith, A. (n.d.) Gedanken experiment for Refining the Unruh Metric Tensor Uncertainty Principle via Schwartzshield Geometry and Planckian Space-Time with Initial Non Zero Entropy and Applying the Riemannian- Penrose Inequality and the Initial Kinetic Energy for a Lower Bound to the Graviton. Under review for publication in the Ukrainian Journal of Physics. http://vixra.org/abs/1509.0173

[12] Weinberg, S. (2008) Cosmology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

[13] Valev, D. (2010) Estimations of Total Mass and Energy of the Universe.

http://arxiv.org/pdf/1004.1035v1.pdf

[14] Ha, Y.K. (2014) An Underlying Theory for Gravity. Proceedings of the 7th international conference on Gravity and Cosmology (ICGC 2011), Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 484, 012061.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/484/1/012061/pdf/1742-6596_484_1_012061.pdf

http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/484/1/012061

[15] Ng, Y.J. (2007) Holographic Foam, Dark Energy and Infinite Statistics. Physics Letters B, 657, 10-14.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2007.09.052

[16] Ng, Y.J. (2008) Spacetime Foam: From Entropy and Holography to Infinite Statistics and Nonlocality. Entropy, 10, 441-461. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e10040441

[17] Kolb, E. and Turner, M. (1990) The Early Universe. Frontiers in Physics, Vol. 69, Chicago, Illinois, USA,

[18] Mukhanov, Y. (2005) Physical Foundations of Cosmology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511790553

[19] Goldhaber, A.S. and Nieto, M.M. (2010) Photon and Graviton Mass Limits. Reviews of Modern Physics, 83, 939-979. http://arxiv.org/abs/0809.1003