Health  Vol.7 No.12 , December 2015
Changes of Food Expenditure and Food Consumption of People Living in Ba Vi District, Hanoi, Vietnam from 1999 to 2013
Abstract: Background: During the nutrition transition period which began in the early 1990s in Vietnam, dietary intake had been changed significantly because of changes in life and living standard. Objectives: This paper aims to describe the trend for food expenditure and the frequency of meat consumption in households in Ba Vi district, Hanoi, Vietnam from 1999 to 2013. Methods: This is a longitudinal study conducted in Ba Vi district, Hanoi. Semi-annual, face-to face interviews were conducted by well-trained interviewers with 11,922 households to collect data of the household’s income, spending for food and meat consumption. Chi-square test for trend was performed to evaluate the changes of food expenditure over the years. P-value under 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There were ten times increase in household’s mean income and five times increase in mean food expenditure from 1999 to 2013. The percentage of household food expenditure per total family expenditure was really high (55% in 2013). The percentage of rice expenditure per total food expenditure decreased dramatically from 59.9% in 1999 to 33.1% in 2013 while spending for other animal-based, high-protein food was an upward trend, particularly meat (10.7% in 1999 to 24.2% in 2013). The percentage of rice expenditure in well-off households was lower than poor households (55% vs. 61.8% in 1999 and 31.4% vs. 36.5% in 2013). However, the percentage of spending for meat in well-off households were much higher than that of poor households (>10%). Conclusion: Our finding indicated that mean income and food expenditure, particularly meat intake, of households had increased dramatically from 1999 to 2013. The increase of meat intake requires reallocation and direction of Vietnam public health funding and strategy.
Cite this paper: Thi, H. , Hong, P. , Hoang, T. , Thu, G. , Thanh, X. , Kim, C. and Vu, N. (2015) Changes of Food Expenditure and Food Consumption of People Living in Ba Vi District, Hanoi, Vietnam from 1999 to 2013. Health, 7, 1696-1702. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.712184.

[1]   Khoi, H.H. (2000) Discusses Some Nutritional Problems in the Transition Period. A Number of Research Projects on Nutrition and Food Safety and Hygiene. Medical Publishers, Hanoi.

[2]   Khoi, H.H. (2001) Nutrition in Transition. Medical Publishers, Hanoi.

[3]   Le, T.D., Le, B.M. and và Nguyen, C.K. (2003) Trends in Food Production and Food Consumption in Vietnam during the Period 1980-2000. Malays Journal Nutrition, 9, 1-5.

[4]   Popkin, B.M. (2003) The Nutrition Transition in the Developing World. Development Policy Review, 21, 581-597.

[5]   WHO/FAO (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Disease. Report of Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation.

[6]   Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2005) State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005.

[7]   United States Department of Agriculture (2005) Household Food Security in the United States. ERS Research Briefs.

[8]   Mishra ,V. and và Ray, R. (2009) Dietary Diversity, Food Security and Undernourishment: The Vietnamese Evidence. Asian Economic Journal, 23, 225-247.

[9]   Godfray, H., Charles J., et al. (2010) Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People. Science, 327, 812-818.

[10]   Tuyen, L.D. and và Brica, N. (2002) Trends in Food Consumption and Main the Nutritional Status in Urban Vietnam.

[11]   Khan, N.C. and Hoan, P.V. (2008) Vietnam Recommended Dietary Allowances 2007. Asia Pacific Journal Clinical Nutrition, 17, 409-415.

[12]   Thang, N.M. and Popkin, B.M. (2004) Patterns of Food Consumption in Vietnam: Effects on Socioeconomic Groups during an Era of Economic Growth. European Journal Clinical Nutrition, 58, 145-153.

[13]   Dien, L.N., Thang, N.M. and Bentley, M.E. (2004) Food Consumption Patterns in the Economic Transition in Vietnam. Asia Pacific Journal Clinical Nutrition, 13, 40-47.

[14]   Nguyen, P.H., Strizich, G., Lowe, A., Nguyen, H., Pham, H., Truong, T.V., Nguyen, S., Martorell, R. and Ramakrishnan, U. (2013) Food Consumption Patterns and Associated Factors among Vietnamese Women of Reproductive Age. Nutrition Journal, 12, 126.

[15]   Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys in 2004 and 2006. truy cap ngày 17 July 2014.

[16]   Renata, M., Sara, K.W. and Dariush, M. (2010) Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes Mellitus—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Circulation, 121, 2271-2283.

[17]   Pan, A., Sun, Q., Bernstein, A.M., Schulze, M.B., Manson, J.E., Willett, W.C. and Hu, F.B. (2011) Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: 3 Cohorts of US Adults and an Updated Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94, 1088-1096.

[18]   Matos, E. and Brandani, A. (2002) Review on Meat Consumption and Cancer in South America. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular. Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 506-507, 243-249.

[19]   Chuc, N.T.K. and Diwan, V.K. (2003) FilaBavi, a Demographic Surveillance Site, an Epidemiological Field Laboratory in Vietnam. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 31, 3-7.

[20]   Ministry of Labor War Invalids & Social Welfare (2000) Decision 1143/2000/QD-LDTBXH, November 1, 2000 on the Adjusted Poverty Line in 2001-2005.

[21]   Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam (2005) Decision 170/2005/QD-TTg, 08/07/2005 on Issued Poverty Line in 2006-2010.

[22]   Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam (2011) Decision 09/2011/QD-TTg, 30/01/2011 on Issued Poverty Line in 2011-2015.

[23]   The ERS Food Expenditure Series, truy cap ngày 14th May 2014.

[24]   Popkin, B.M., Adair, L.S. and Ng, S.W. (2012) Global Nutrition Transition and the Pandemic of Obesity in Developing Countries. Nutrition Review, 70, 3-21.

[25]   Rosegranta, M.W., Leacha, N. and Roberta, V. (1999) Alternative Futures for World Cereal and Meat Consumption. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 58, 219-234.

[26]   Kim, S., Moon, S. and Popkin, B.M. (2000) The Nutrition Transition in South Korea. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 44-53.

[27]   Nguyen, V.P. and Mergenthaler, M. (2013) Meat Consumption Patterns in Vietnam: Effects of Household Characteristics on Pork and Poultry Consumption. 53rd Annual Conference of the German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA), Berlin, 25-27 September 2013.

[28]   Vietnam Agribusiness (2011) Report Q4. truy cap ngày 9 July 2014.

[29]   Ley, S.H., Sun, Q., Willett, W.C., Eliassen, A.H., Wu, K., Pan, A., Grodstein, F. and Hu, F.B. (2014) Associations between Red Meat Intake and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Glucose Metabolism in Women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99, 352-360.

[30]   Kaluza, J., Akesson, A. and Wolk, A. (2014) Processed and Unprocessed Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: Prospective Study of Men. Circulation Heart Failure, 7, 552-557.

[31]   Manjinder, S.S., Ian, R.W. and Kilim, M.P. (2001) Systematic Review of the Prospective Cohort Studies on Meat Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk—A Meta-Analytical Approach. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 10, 439-446.