Back
 AJAC  Vol.6 No.13 , December 2015
Hydrothermal Carbonization of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates Waste Liquid for Energy Source Generation
Abstract: Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are widely used as nonionic surfactants in many industry fields. High concentration NPEOs waste water is produced in some production processes. It is often treated to realize reduction by distillation. Therefore, NPEOs waste liquid with higher concentration is produced and it is difficult to be treated by traditional water treatment process. In this study, hydrothermal carbonization process was used to convert NPEOs waste liquid to carbonaceous product (hydrochar) with sulfuric acid as additive in 24 h at 200°C. The hydrochar was characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and thermogravimetric analysis. The element composition and the high heat value of the hydrochar were similar to lignite, showing that it could be used as an alternative fuel.
Cite this paper: Ge, Y. , Zhang, W. , Xue, G. and Rao, P. (2015) Hydrothermal Carbonization of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates Waste Liquid for Energy Source Generation. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 1059-1066. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2015.613101.
References

[1]   Soares, A., Guieysse, B., Jefferson, B., Cartmell, E. and Lester, J.N. (2008) Nonylphenol in the Environment: A Critical Review on Occurrence, Fate, Toxicity and Treatment in Wastewaters. Environment International, 34, 1033-1049.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2008.01.004

[2]   Ying, G.G. (2006) Fate, Behavior and Effects of Surfactants and Their Degradation Products in the Environment. Environment International, 32, 417-431.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2005.07.004

[3]   Sharma, V.K., Anquandah, G.A., Yngard, R., et al. (2009) Nonylphenol, Octylphenol, and Bisphenol-A in the Aquatic Environment: A Review on Occurrence, Fate, and Treatment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 44, 423-442.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520902719704

[4]   Lu, J., Jin, Q., He, Y.L. and Wu, J. (2007) Biodegradation of Nonylphenol Polyethoxylates under Fe(III)-Reducing Conditions. Chemosphere, 69, 1047-1054.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.04.035

[5]   Karci, A., Arslan-Alaton, I., Bekbolet, M., Ozhan, G. and Alpertunga, B. (2014) H2O2/UV-C and Photo-Fenton Treatment of a Nonylphenol Polyethoxylate in Synthetic Freshwater: Follow-Up of Degradation Products, Acute Toxicity and Genotoxicity. Chemical Engineering Journal, 241, 43-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.12.022

[6]   Chen, L., Zhou, H.Y., Liu, L and Deng, Y.D. (2007) Mechanism Study on UV-Induced Photodegradation of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates by Intermediate Products Analysis. Chinese Chemical Letters, 18, 473-475.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2007.02.004

[7]   Liu, G.M., Zheng, S.R., Yin, D.Q., et al. (2006) Adsorption of Aqueous Alkylphenol Ethoxylate Surfactants by Mesoporous Carbon CMK-3. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 302, 47-53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.06.006

[8]   Mumme, J., Eckervogt, L., Pielert, J., et al. (2011) Hydrothermal Carbonization of Anaerobically Digested Maize Silage. Bioresource Technology, 102, 9255-9260.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.06.099

[9]   Funke, A. and Ziegler, F. (2010) Hydrothermal Carbonization of Biomass: A Summary and Discussion of Chemical Mechanisms for Process Engineering. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining, 4, 160-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bbb.198

[10]   Libra, J.A., Ro, K.S., Kammann, C., et al. (2010) Hydrothermal Carbonization of Biomass Residuals: A Comparative Review of the Chemistry, Processes and Applications of Wet and Dry Pyrolysis. Biofuels, 2, 71-106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bfs.10.81

[11]   Dinjus, E., Kruse, A. and Troger, N. (2011) Hydrothermal Carbonization-1. Influence of Lignin in Lignocelluloses. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 34, 2037-2043.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ceat.201100487

[12]   Titirici, M.M., Thomas, A., Yu, S.H., Muller, J.O. and Antonietti, M. (2007) A Direct Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbons with Bicontinuous Pore Morphology from Crude Plant Material by Hydrothermal Carbonization. Chemistry of Materials, 19, 4205-4212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm0707408

[13]   Silva, J.D.O., Filho, G.R., Meireles, C.D.S., et al. (2012) Thermal Analysis and FTIR Studies of Sewage Sludge Produced in Treatment Plants. The Case of Sludge in the City of Uberlandia-MG, Brazil. Thermochim Acta, 528, 72-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2011.11.010

[14]   Li, M., Li, W. and Liu, S.X. (2011) Hydrothermal Synthesis, Characterization, and KOH Activation of Carbon Spheres from Glucose. Carbohydrate Research, 346, 999-1004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2011.03.020

[15]   Kang, S., Li, X., Fan, J. and Chang, J. (2012) Characterization of Hydrochars Produced by Hydrothermal Carbonization of Lignin, Cellulose, d-Xylose, and Wood Meal. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 51, 9023-9031.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie300565d

[16]   Mosa, J., Durán, A. and Aparicio, M. (2015) Sulfonic Acid-Functionalized Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Proton Exchange Membranes Synthesized by Sol-Gel Using 3-Mercaptopropyl Trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). Journal of Power Sources, 297, 208-216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.06.119

[17]   Van Krevelen, D.W. (1993) Coal. 3rd Edition, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.

[18]   Channiwala, S.A. and Parikh, P.P. (2002) A Unified Correlation for Estimating HHV of Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels. Fuel, 81, 1051-1063.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(01)00131-4

[19]   He, C., Giannis, A. and Wang, J.Y. (2013) Conversion of Sewage Sludge to Clean Solid Fuel Using Hydrothermal Carbonization: Hydrochar Fuel Characteristics and Combustion Behavior. Applied Energy, 111, 257-266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.04.084

[20]   Xu, M. and Sheng, C. (2011) Influences of the Heat-Treatment Temperature and Inorganic Matter on Combustion Characteristics of Cornstalk Biochars. Energy & Fuels, 26, 209-218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef2011657

[21]   Biagini, E. and Tognotti, L. (2006) Comparison of Devolatilization/Char Oxidation and Direct Oxidation of Solid Fuels at Low Heating Rate. Energy & Fuels, 20, 986-992.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef0503156

 
 
Top