CE  Vol.6 No.22 , December 2015
Working to Improve Classroom Climate Using a Ten Point Scale and Focusing on the Development of the Classroom Management Skills of Individual Teachers
Author(s) Terry Haydn
ABSTRACT
The working atmosphere in the classroom is an important variable in the process of education, with several studies suggesting that classroom climate has a significant impact on student attainment. Recent international studies have suggested that deficits in classroom climate are prevalent in many countries, pointing out that these deficits are more serious and prevalent in some systems compared to others. Attention has also been drawn to the phenomenon of “in-school variation”, with levels of classroom control varying not just between schools, but also, within them. The paper describes the use of a 10 point scale for conceptualising the working atmosphere in the classroom as a continuum between a climate which is ideally conducive to learning (level 10), to a level where learning is severely constrained by the poor behaviour of some pupils (level 1). The scale encourages teachers, student teachers, school managers and school governors to reflect on the factors influencing the working atmosphere in the classroom. In England, there has been a tendency to see school leaders as the key to levels of classroom control (Ofsted, 2014; Wilshaw, 2014). However, this does not explain the phenomenon of “in-school variation” in classroom climate. The research outlined in this paper supports Elliott’s view (Elliott, 2009) that the classroom management skills of individual teachers are one of the key determinants of classroom climate and good pupil behaviour, and therefore more time and effort need to go into developing this dimension of teacher authority. Working with teachers and student teachers, using the 10 point scale to develop their understanding of factors influencing classroom climate offers one way of developing teachers’ skills in this area. Given that deficits in classroom climate and pupil behaviour are not limited to the UK, the scale may be of use and interest to those involved in teaching and teacher education in other countries.

Cite this paper
Haydn, T. (2015) Working to Improve Classroom Climate Using a Ten Point Scale and Focusing on the Development of the Classroom Management Skills of Individual Teachers. Creative Education, 6, 2351-2360. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.622241.
References
[1]   Barmby, P. (2006). Improving Teacher Recruitment and Retention: The Importance of Workload and Pupil Behaviour, Educational Research, 48, 247-265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00131880600732314

[2]   Bennett, T. (2010). The behaviour guru. London: Continuum.

[3]   Bradshaw, J., Ager, R., Burge, B., & Wheater, R. (2010). PISA 2009: Achievement of 15-Year-Olds in England. Slough: NFER.

[4]   Elliott, J. (1992). Action Research for Educational Change. Buckingham: Open University Press.

[5]   Elliott, J. (2012). Developing a Science of Teaching through Lesson Study. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 1, 108-125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/20468251211224163

[6]   Elliott, J. G. (2009). The Nature of Teacher Authority and Teacher Expertise. Support for Learning, 24, 197-203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9604.2009.01429.x

[7]   Elliott, J. G., & Phuong-Mai, N. (2008). Western Influences on the East, Eastern Influences on the West: Lessons for the East and West. In J. Elliott, & N. Phuong-Mai (Eds.), What the West Can Learn from the East: Asian Perspectives on the Psychology of Learning and Motivation (31-58). New York: Information Age Publishing.

[8]   Goodson, I. (1996). Teachers’ Professional Lives. London: Falmer Press.

[9]   Guarino, C., Santibañez, L., & Daley, G. (2006) Teacher Recruitment and Retention: A Review of the Recent Empirical Literature. Review of Educational Research, 76, 173-208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543076002173

[10]   Hallam, S. (2011). Quoted in “UK and Western Europe Joins US at Back of the Class on Behaviour”. Times Educational Supplement, 27 May 2011, 21.

[11]   Haydn, T. (2012). Managing Pupil Behaviour: Working to Improve Classroom Climate. London: Routledge

[12]   Haydn, T. (2014). To What Extent Is Behaviour a Problem in English Schools? Exploring the Scale and Prevalence of Deficits in Classroom Climate. Review of Education, 2, 31-64.

[13]   Menter, I., Hutchings, M., & Ross, A. (Eds.) (2002). The Crisis in Teacher Supply: Research and Strategies for Retention. London: Trentham.

[14]   Miller, D., Sen, A., Malley, A., & Burns, S. D. (2009). Comparative Indicators of Education in the United States and Other G-8 Countries: 2009 (NCES 2009-039). Washington DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.

[15]   Moores, K., Jones, G., & Radley, C. (2012). Development of an Instrument to Measure Face Validity, Feasibility and Utility of Patient Questionnaire Use during Health Care: The QQ-10. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 24, 517-524.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzs051

[16]   OECD (2009). Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Results: What Students Know and Can Do. Paris: OECD.

[17]   Ofsted (2014). Below the Radar: Low-Level Disruption in Classrooms. London: Ofsted.
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/below-the-radar-low-level-disruption-in-the-countrys-classrooms

[18]   Reynolds, D. (1999). It’s the Classroom, Stupid. The Observer, 28 May 1999, 13.

[19]   Rogers, B. (2011). Classroom Behaviour: A Practical Guide to Effective Teaching, Behaviour Management and Colleague Support. London: Paul Chapman.

[20]   Ronfeldt, M., Loeg, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2013). How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 50, 4-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831212463813

[21]   Saito, E., Watanabe, M., Gillies, R., Someya, I., Nagashima, T, Sato, M., & Murase, M. (2015). School Reform for Positive Behaviour Support through Collaborative Learning: Utilising Lesson Study for a Learning Community. Cambridge Journal of Education, 45, 489-518.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2014.988684

[22]   Sikes, P. (2006). Working in a New University: In the Shadow of the Research Assessment Exercise. Studies in Higher Education, 31, 555-568.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03075070600922758

[23]   Taylor, C. (2011). Quoted in Vaughan, R. “There’s an Element of Threat… Deep Down, Behaviour Is Our Biggest Fear”. Times Educational Supplement, 22 July 2011, 20-21.

[24]   TIMMS (2011). Trends in International Maths and Science Study. Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.

[25]   Wilshaw, M. (2014). Failure of Leadership in Tackling Poor Behaviour Costing Pupils. Department for Education Press Release, 25 September.
https://www.gov.uk/government/news/failure-of-leadership-in-tackling-poor-behaviour-costing-pupils

[26]   Wubbels, T. (2011). An International Perspective on Classroom Management: What Should Prospective Teachers Learn? Teaching Education, 22, 113-131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10476210.2011.567838

[27]   Wubbels, T. (2013). Classroom Management around the World. Keynote Address to the Classroom Management Special Interest Group, AERA Conference, San Francisco, 27 April-1 May 2013.

 
 
Top